Immunofluorescence analysis of F(ab')2-Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) Secondary Antibody, Alexa Fluor 488 (A11070) was performed using HeLa cells stained with PARP Rabbit Polyclonal Primary Antibody (PA516452). The cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 10 minutes, permeabilized with 0.1% Triton™ X-100 for 10 minutes, blocked with 1% BSA for 1 hour and labeled with 2 ug/ml of rabbit primary antibody for 3 hours at room temperature. F(ab')2-Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) Secondary Antibody, Alexa Fluor 488 (A11070) was used at a concentration of 2ug/ml in phosphate buffered saline containing 0.2 % BSA for 45 minutes at room temperature, for detection of PARP in the nucleus (Panel a: green). Nuclei (Panel b: blue) were stained with DAPI in SlowFade® Gold Antifade Mountant (S36938). F-actin was stained with Rhodamine Phalloidin (Product # R415, 1:300) (Panel c: red). Panel d represents the composite image. No nonspecific staining was observed with the secondary antibody alone (panel f), or with an isotype control (panel e). The images were captured at 60X magnification.
|Tested species reactivity||Rabbit|
|Published species reactivity||Not Applicable|
|Host / Isotype||Goat / IgG|
|Immunogen||Gamma Immunoglobins Heavy and Light chains|
|Conjugate||Alexa Fluor® 488|
|Storage buffer||PBS, pH 7.5|
|Contains||5mM sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||4° C, store in dark|
|Cross Adsorption||Against pooled human serum, mouse serum, mouse plasmacytoma/hybridoma proteins and purified human paraproteins|
|Antibody Form||F(ab')2 Fragment|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Flow Cytometry (Flow)||1:1000|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||2 µg/ml|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||2 µg/ml|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
To minimize cross-reactivity, these goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) divalent F(ab')2 secondary antibodies have been affinity purified and cross-adsorbed against pooled human serum, mouse serum, mouse plasmacytoma/ hybridoma proteins, and purified human paraproteins. Cross-adsorption or pre-adsorption is a purification step to increase specificity of the antibody resulting in higher sensitivity and less background staining. The secondary antibody solution is passed through a column matrix containing immobilized serum proteins from potentially cross-reactive species. Only the nonspecific-binding secondary antibodies are captured in the column, and the highly specific secondaries flow through. The benefits of this extra step are apparent in multiplexing/multicolor-staining experiments (e.g., flow cytometry) where there is potential cross-reactivity with other primary antibodies or in tissue/cell fluorescent staining experiments where there are may be the presence of endogenous immunoglobulins.
Alexa Fluor dyes are among the most trusted fluorescent dyes available today. Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor 488 dye is a bright, green-fluorescent dye with excitation ideally suited to the 488 nm laser line. For stable signal generation in imaging and flow cytometry, Alexa Fluor 488 dye is pH-insensitive over a wide molar range. Probes with high fluorescence quantum yield and high photostability allow detection of low-abundance biological structures with great sensitivity. Alexa Fluor 488 dye molecules can be attached to proteins at high molar ratios without significant self-quenching, enabling brighter conjugates and more sensitive detection. The degree of labeling for each conjugate is typically 2-8 fluorophore molecules per IgG molecule; the exact degree of labeling is indicated on the certificate of analysis for each product lot.
Using conjugate solutions: Centrifuge the protein conjugate solution briefly in a microcentrifuge before use; add only the supernatant to the experiment. This step will help eliminate any protein aggregates that may have formed during storage, thereby reducing nonspecific background staining. Because staining protocols vary with application, the appropriate dilution of antibody should be determined empirically. For the fluorophore-labeled antibodies a final concentration of 1-10 µg/mL should be satisfactory for most immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry applications.
We offer an extensive line of Invitrogen™ secondary antibody conjugates with well-characterized specificity and labeled with a wide selection of premium fluorescent dyes, including Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor™ fluorescent dyes. Fluorescent secondary antibody conjugates are useful in the detection, sorting, or purification of its specified target and ideal for fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, flow cytometry, and fluorescent western detection. The breadth of fluorescent markers we offer allows our reagents to be tailored to almost any fluorescent detection system.
Secondary antibodies may be provided in three formats: whole IgG, divalent F(ab')2 fragments, and monovalent Fab fragments. Because of the high degree of conservation in the structure of many immunoglobulin domains, most class-specific secondary antibodies must be affinity-purified and cross-adsorbed to achieve minimal cross-reaction with other immunoglobulins.
Our secondary antibody conjugates are most commonly prepared by immunizing the host animal with a pooled population of immunoglobulins from the target species and can be further purified and modified (e.g., immunoaffinity chromatography, antibody fragmentation, label conjugation, etc.) to generate highly specific reagents. In the first round of purification, whole immunoglobulins binding to the immunizing antibody are recovered and mainly consist of the ~150-kDa IgG class. Further purification, for example, with Protein A or G, removes all unwanted immunoglobulin classes except the affinity-purified antibodies that react with the target-specific immunoglobulin heavy and/or light chains.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Quantitative Differences in Nuclear ß-catenin and TCF Pattern Embryonic Cells in C. elegans.
A-11070 was used in immunohistochemistry to characterize quantitative differences in C. elegans regarding nuclear beta-catenin and TCF pattern embryonic cells
|Zacharias AL,Walton T,Preston E,Murray JI||PLoS genetics (11:null)||2015|
Interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are expressed by different subsets of microglia and macrophages after ischemic stroke in mice.
A-11070 was used in immunohistochemistry to test if IL-1beta and TNF-alpha are synthesized by overlapping or segregated populations of cells after ischemic stroke in mice
|Clausen BH,Lambertsen KL,Babcock AA,Holm TH,Dagnaes-Hansen F,Finsen B||Journal of neuroinflammation (5:null)||2008|
pygopus 2 has a crucial, Wnt pathway-independent function in lens induction.
A-11070 was used in immunohistochemistry to elucidate how Pygo2 contributes to lens development
|Song N,Schwab KR,Patterson LT,Yamaguchi T,Lin X,Potter SS,Lang RA||Development (Cambridge, England) (134:1873)||2007|
Pou5f1-dependent EGF expression controls E-cadherin endocytosis, cell adhesion, and zebrafish epiboly movements.
A-11070 was used in immunohistochemistry - paraffin section to study the role of E-cadherin endosomal trafficking to development of zebrafish
|Song S,Eckerle S,Onichtchouk D,Marrs JA,Nitschke R,Driever W||Developmental cell (24:486)||2013|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Molecular identification of a SNAP-25-like SNARE protein in Paramecium.||Schilde C,Lutter K,Kissmehl R,Plattner H||Eukaryotic cell (7:1387)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Analysis of lipolytic protein trafficking and interactions in adipocytes.||Granneman JG,Moore HP,Granneman RL,Greenberg AS,Obin MS,Zhu Z||The Journal of biological chemistry (282:5726)||2007|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Regulation of epithelial tight junction assembly and disassembly by AMP-activated protein kinase.||Zheng B,Cantley LC||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (104:819)||2007|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Dendritic compartmentalization of chloride cotransporters underlies directional responses of starburst amacrine cells in retina.||Gavrikov KE,Nilson JE,Dmitriev AV,Zucker CL,Mangel SC||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (103:18793)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Perilipin targets a novel pool of lipid droplets for lipolytic attack by hormone-sensitive lipase.||Moore HP,Silver RB,Mottillo EP,Bernlohr DA,Granneman JG||The Journal of biological chemistry (280:43109)||2005|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Localization of sphingosine kinase-1 in mouse sperm acrosomes.||Matsumoto K,Banno Y,Murate T,Akao Y,Nozawa Y||The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society (53:243)||2005|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Directed polar secretion of protease from single cells of Vibrio cholerae via the type II secretion pathway.||Scott ME,Dossani ZY,Sandkvist M||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (98:13978)||2001|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
Poliovirus induces Bax-dependent cell death mediated by c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase.
A-11070 was used in immunocytochemistry to report that poliovirus induces mitochondrial cytochrome c release and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential in infected neurons
|Autret A,Martin-Latil S,Mousson L,Wirotius A,Petit F,Arnoult D,Colbère-Garapin F,Estaquier J,Blondel B||Journal of virology (81:7504)||2007|