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Western blot analysis of Zona Occludens protein 2 (ZO-2) was performed by loading 50ug of MDCK (lane 2) and NRK (lane 3) cell lysates and 2ul SeeBlue® Plus2 Prestained Protein Ladder (Product # LC5925) (lane 1) per well onto a 4-20% Tris-HCl polyacrylamide gel. Proteins were transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane and blocked with 1% BSA/TBST for at least 1 hour at room temperature. ZO-2 was detected using a polyclonal antibody (Product # 38-9100) at a concentration of 1ug/ml in blocking buffer overnight at 4°C on a rocking platform, followed by a goat anti-rabbit IgG Alexa Fluor 680 conjugated secondary antibody (Product # A21109) at a dilution of 1:10,000 for at least 1 hour. Fluorescent detection was performed using the Odyssey® CLx imaging system (Li-cor Biosciences). Images generated by Joell Solan in Paul Lampe Lab at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.
|Tested species reactivity||Rabbit|
|Published species reactivity||Not Applicable|
|Host / Isotype||Goat / IgG|
|Immunogen||Gamma Immunoglobins Heavy and Light chains|
|Conjugate||Alexa Fluor® 680|
|Storage buffer||PBS, pH 7.5|
|Contains||5mM sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||4° C, store in dark|
|Cross Adsorption||Against bovine IgG, goat IgG, mouse IgG, rat IgG and human IgG|
|Antibody Form||Whole Antibody|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Flow Cytometry (Flow)||1-10 µg/mL|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||1-10 µg/mL|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||1-10 µg/mL|
|Western Blot (WB)||1:10,000|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
|Miscellaneous PubMed (MISC)||See 4 publications below|
To minimize cross-reactivity, these goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) whole secondary antibodies have been affinity purified and cross-adsorbed against bovine IgG, goat IgG, mouse IgG, rat IgG, and human IgG. Cross-adsorption or pre-adsorption is a purification step to increase specificity of the antibody resulting in higher sensitivity and less background staining. The secondary antibody solution is passed through a column matrix containing immobilized serum proteins from potentially cross-reactive species. Only the nonspecific-binding secondary antibodies are captured in the column, and the highly specific secondaries flow through. The benefits of this extra step are apparent in multiplexing/multicolor-staining experiments (e.g., flow cytometry) where there is potential cross-reactivity with other primary antibodies or in tissue/cell fluorescent staining experiments where there are may be the presence of endogenous immunoglobulins.
Alexa Fluor dyes are among the most trusted fluorescent dyes available today. Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor 680 dye is a bright, near-infrared-fluorescent dye with excitation ideally suited to the 680 nm laser line. For stable signal generation in imaging and flow cytometry, Alexa Fluor 680 dye is pH-insensitive over a wide molar range. Probes with high fluorescence quantum yield and high photostability allow detection of low-abundance biological structures with great sensitivity. Alexa Fluor 680 dye molecules can be attached to proteins at high molar ratios without significant self-quenching, enabling brighter conjugates and more sensitive detection. The degree of labeling for each conjugate is typically 2-8 fluorophore molecules per IgG molecule; the exact degree of labeling is indicated on the certificate of analysis for each product lot.
Using conjugate solutions: Centrifuge the protein conjugate solution briefly in a microcentrifuge before use; add only the supernatant to the experiment. This step will help eliminate any protein aggregates that may have formed during storage, thereby reducing nonspecific background staining. Because staining protocols vary with application, the appropriate dilution of antibody should be determined empirically. For the fluorophore-labeled antibodies a final concentration of 1-10 µg/mL should be satisfactory for most immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry applications, and 0.04-0.2 µg/mL for western blotting.
We offer an extensive line of Invitrogen™ secondary antibody conjugates with well-characterized specificity and labeled with a wide selection of premium fluorescent dyes, including Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor™ fluorescent dyes. Fluorescent secondary antibody conjugates are useful in the detection, sorting, or purification of its specified target and ideal for fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, flow cytometry, and fluorescent western detection. The breadth of fluorescent markers we offer allows our reagents to be tailored to almost any fluorescent detection system.
Secondary antibodies may be provided in three formats: whole IgG, divalent F(ab')2 fragments, and monovalent Fab fragments. Because of the high degree of conservation in the structure of many immunoglobulin domains, most class-specific secondary antibodies must be affinity-purified and cross-adsorbed to achieve minimal cross-reaction with other immunoglobulins.
Our secondary antibody conjugates are most commonly prepared by immunizing the host animal with a pooled population of immunoglobulins from the target species and can be further purified and modified (e.g., immunoaffinity chromatography, antibody fragmentation, label conjugation, etc.) to generate highly specific reagents. In the first round of purification, whole immunoglobulins binding to the immunizing antibody are recovered and mainly consist of the ~150-kDa IgG class. Further purification, for example, with Protein A or G, removes all unwanted immunoglobulin classes except the affinity-purified antibodies that react with the target-specific immunoglobulin heavy and/or light chains.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||MitoBK(Ca) is encoded by the Kcnma1 gene, and a splicing sequence defines its mitochondrial location.||Singh H,Lu R,Bopassa JC,Meredith AL,Stefani E,Toro L||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (110:10836)||2013|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Coupling of septins to the axial landmark by Bud4 in budding yeast.||Kang PJ,Hood-DeGrenier JK,Park HO||Journal of cell science (126:1218)||2013|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Nucleotide excision repair-induced H2A ubiquitination is dependent on MDC1 and RNF8 and reveals a universal DNA damage response.||Marteijn JA,Bekker-Jensen S,Mailand N,Lans H,Schwertman P,Gourdin AM,Dantuma NP,Lukas J,Vermeulen W||The Journal of cell biology (186:835)||2009|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Mammalian cell penetration, siRNA transfection, and DNA transfection by supercharged proteins.||McNaughton BR,Cronican JJ,Thompson DB,Liu DR||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (106:6111)||2009|