Flow cytometry analysis of Goat anti-Rat IgG (H+L) Cross-Adsorbed Secondary Antibody, Alexa Fluor 546 (Product # A11081) was performed using K-562 cells stained with alpha Tubulin Rat Monoclonal Antibody (Product # MA1-80017). Cells were fixed with 70% ethanol for 10 minutes, permeabilized with 0.25% Triton™ X-100 for 20 minutes, and blocked with 5% BSA for 30 minutes at room temperature. Cells were labeled with alpha Tubulin antibody (red histogram) or with rat isotype control (pink histogram) at 3-5 µg/million cells in 2.5% BSA and incubated for 2 hours at room temperature. The cells were then labeled with Goat anti-Rat IgG (H+L) Cross-Adsorbed Secondary Antibody, Alexa Fluor 546 (Product # A11081) at a dilution of 1:500 for 1 hour at room temperature. A representative 10,000 cells were acquired and analyzed for each sample using the Attune® NxT Acoustic Focusing Cytometer. The green histogram represents no-primary-antibody control.
|Tested species reactivity||Rat|
|Published species reactivity||Not Applicable|
|Host / Isotype||Goat / IgG|
|Immunogen||Gamma Immunoglobins Heavy and Light chains|
|Conjugate||Alexa Fluor® 546|
|Storage buffer||PBS, pH 7.5|
|Contains||5mM sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||4° C, store in dark|
|Cross Adsorption||Against mouse IgG, mouse serum and human serum prior to conjugation|
|Antibody Form||Whole Antibody|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Flow Cytometry (Flow)||1:500|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||1-10 µg/ml|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||1-10 µg/mL|
|Immunohistochemistry (IHC)||1-10 µg/ml|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
To minimize cross-reactivity, these goat anti-rat IgG (H+L) whole secondary antibodies have been affinity purified and cross-adsorbed against mouse IgG, mouse serum, and human serum prior to conjugation. Cross-adsorption or pre-adsorption is a purification step to increase specificity of the antibody resulting in higher sensitivity and less background staining. The secondary antibody solution is passed through a column matrix containing immobilized serum proteins from potentially cross-reactive species. Only the nonspecific-binding secondary antibodies are captured in the column, and the highly specific secondaries flow through. The benefits of this extra step are apparent in multiplexing/multicolor-staining experiments (e.g., flow cytometry) where there is potential cross-reactivity with other primary antibodies or in tissue/cell fluorescent staining experiments where there are may be the presence of endogenous immunoglobulins.
Alexa Fluor dyes are among the most trusted fluorescent dyes available today. Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor 546 dye is a bright, orange-fluorescent dye with excitation ideally suited to the 546 nm laser line. For stable signal generation in imaging and flow cytometry, Alexa Fluor 546 dye is pH-insensitive over a wide molar range. Probes with high fluorescence quantum yield and high photostability allow detection of low-abundance biological structures with great sensitivity. Alexa Fluor 546 dye molecules can be attached to proteins at high molar ratios without significant self-quenching, enabling brighter conjugates and more sensitive detection. The degree of labeling for each conjugate is typically 2-8 fluorophore molecules per IgG molecule; the exact degree of labeling is indicated on the certificate of analysis for each product lot.
Using conjugate solutions: Centrifuge the protein conjugate solution briefly in a microcentrifuge before use; add only the supernatant to the experiment. This step will help eliminate any protein aggregates that may have formed during storage, thereby reducing nonspecific background staining. Because staining protocols vary with application, the appropriate dilution of antibody should be determined empirically. For the fluorophore-labeled antibodies a final concentration of 1-10 µg/mL should be satisfactory for most immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry applications.
We offer an extensive line of Invitrogen™ secondary antibody conjugates with well-characterized specificity and labeled with a wide selection of premium fluorescent dyes, including Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor™ fluorescent dyes. Fluorescent secondary antibody conjugates are useful in the detection, sorting, or purification of its specified target and ideal for fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, flow cytometry, and fluorescent western detection. The breadth of fluorescent markers we offer allows our reagents to be tailored to almost any fluorescent detection system.
Secondary antibodies may be provided in three formats: whole IgG, divalent F(ab')2 fragments, and monovalent Fab fragments. Because of the high degree of conservation in the structure of many immunoglobulin domains, most class-specific secondary antibodies must be affinity-purified and cross-adsorbed to achieve minimal cross-reaction with other immunoglobulins.
Our secondary antibody conjugates are most commonly prepared by immunizing the host animal with a pooled population of immunoglobulins from the target species and can be further purified and modified (e.g., immunoaffinity chromatography, antibody fragmentation, label conjugation, etc.) to generate highly specific reagents. In the first round of purification, whole immunoglobulins binding to the immunizing antibody are recovered and mainly consist of the ~150-kDa IgG class. Further purification, for example, with Protein A or G, removes all unwanted immunoglobulin classes except the affinity-purified antibodies that react with the target-specific immunoglobulin heavy and/or light chains.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Histone chaperone CAF-1 mediates repressive histone modifications to protect preimplantation mouse embryos from endogenous retrotransposons.
A-11081 was used in immunocytochemistry to protect preimplantation mouse embryos from endogenous retrotransposons by histone chaperone CAF-1 mediating repressive histone modifications
|Hatanaka Y,Inoue K,Oikawa M,Kamimura S,Ogonuki N,Kodama EN,Ohkawa Y,Tsukada Y,Ogura A||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (112:14641)||2015|
Expression analysis of BORIS during pluripotent, differentiated, cancerous, and non-cancerous cell states.
A-11081 was used in flow cytometry to report the expression of BORIS in different pluripotent, differentiated, cancerous, and non-cancerous cells
|Soltanian S,Dehghani H,Matin MM,Bahrami AR||Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica (46:647)||2014|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Visualization and identification of IL-7 producing cells in reporter mice.||Mazzucchelli RI,Warming S,Lawrence SM,Ishii M,Abshari M,Washington AV,Feigenbaum L,Warner AC,Sims DJ,Li WQ,Hixon JA,Gray DH,Rich BE,Morrow M,Anver MR,Cherry J,Naf D,Sternberg LR,McVicar DW,Farr AG,Germain RN,Rogers K,Jenkins NA,Copeland NG,Durum SK||PloS one (4:null)||2009|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Specificity of olfactory receptor interactions with other G protein-coupled receptors.||Bush CF,Jones SV,Lyle AN,Minneman KP,Ressler KJ,Hall RA||The Journal of biological chemistry (282:19042)||2007|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Extracellular RNA constitutes a natural procoagulant cofactor in blood coagulation.||Kannemeier C,Shibamiya A,Nakazawa F,Trusheim H,Ruppert C,Markart P,Song Y,Tzima E,Kennerknecht E,Niepmann M,von Bruehl ML,Sedding D,Massberg S,Günther A,Engelmann B,Preissner KT||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (104:6388)||2007|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Gamma-adaptin, a novel ubiquitin-interacting adaptor, and Nedd4 ubiquitin ligase control hepatitis B virus maturation.||Rost M,Mann S,Lambert C,Döring T,Thomé N,Prange R||The Journal of biological chemistry (281:29297)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Layer acquisition by cortical GABAergic interneurons is independent of Reelin signaling.||Pla R,Borrell V,Flames N,Marín O||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (26:6924)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Features of medullary thymic epithelium implicate postnatal development in maintaining epithelial heterogeneity and tissue-restricted antigen expression.||Gillard GO,Farr AG||Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) (176:5815)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||IGF-I increases bone marrow contribution to adult skeletal muscle and enhances the fusion of myelomonocytic precursors.||Sacco A,Doyonnas R,LaBarge MA,Hammer MM,Kraft P,Blau HM||The Journal of cell biology (171:483)||2005|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||In vivo characterization of bone marrow-derived fibroblasts recruited into fibrotic lesions.||Ishii G,Sangai T,Sugiyama K,Ito T,Hasebe T,Endoh Y,Magae J,Ochiai A||Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) (23:699)||2005|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||XMAP215, XKCM1, NuMA, and cytoplasmic dynein are required for the assembly and organization of the transient microtubule array during the maturation of Xenopus oocytes.||Becker BE,Romney SJ,Gard DL||Developmental biology (261:488)||2003|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Rap1 translates chemokine signals to integrin activation, cell polarization, and motility across vascular endothelium under flow.||Shimonaka M,Katagiri K,Nakayama T,Fujita N,Tsuruo T,Yoshie O,Kinashi T||The Journal of cell biology (161:417)||2003|