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This product is diluted and in a ready-to-use formulation.
A recommended positive control tissue for this product is MPNST/melanoma, however positive controls are not limited to this tissue type.
The primary antibody is intended for laboratory professional use in the detection of the corresponding protein in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue stained in manual qualitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing. This antibody is intended to be used after the primary diagnosis of tumor has been made by conventional histopathology using non-immunological histochemical stains.
Sry-related HMG-BOX gene 10, (SOX-10), a nuclear transcription factor that participates in neural crest development and in the specification and differentiation of cells of melanocytic lineage, has been recently shown to be a sensitive marker of melanoma. SOX-10 nuclear expression was found in virtually all cases of melanomas (97%) and about half of cases of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (49%). In sentinel node, SOX-10 is positive in metastatic melanomas and nodal capsular nevus but not in dendritic cells, which usually express S100 protein. SOX-10 is moderately to strongly positive in desmoplastic or spindle cell melanomas, which is usually negative for HMB-45, Melan-A or even S-100. SOX-10 is diffusely expressed in schwannomas, neurofibromas, sustentacular cells of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. SOX-10 reaction is not identified in any other mesenchymal and epithelial tumors except for myoepitheliomas and diffuse astrocytomas.
Antibody is used with formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections. Pretreatment of deparaffinized tissue with heat-induced epitope retrieval or enzymatic retrieval is recommended. In general, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining techniques allow for the visualization of antigens via the sequential application of a specific antibody to the antigen (primary antibody), a secondary antibody to the primary antibody (link antibody), an enzyme complex and a chromogenic substrate with interposed washing steps. The enzymatic activation of the chromogen results in a visible reaction product at the antigen site. Results are interpreted using a light microscope and aid in the differential diagnosis of pathophysiological processes, which may or may not be associated with a particular antigen.
A positive tissue control must be run with every staining procedure performed. This tissue may contain both positive and negative staining cells or tissue components and serve as both the positive and negative control tissue. External Positive control materials should be fresh autopsy/biopsy/surgical specimens fixed, processed and embedded as soon as possible in the same manner as the patient sample (s). Positive tissue controls are indicative of correctly prepared tissues and proper staining methods. The tissues used for the external positive control materials should be selected from the patient specimens with well-characterized low levels of the positive target activity that gives weak positive staining. The low level of positivity for external positive controls is designed to ensure detection of subtle changes in the primary antibody sensitivity from instability or problems with the staining methodology. A tissue with weak positive staining is more suitable for optimal quality control and for detecting minor levels of reagent degradation.
Internal or external negative control tissue may be used depending on the guidelines and policies that govern the organization to which the end user belongs to. The variety of cell types present in many tissue sections offers internal negative control sites, but this should be verified by the user. The components that do not stain should demonstrate the absence of specific staining, and provide an indication of non-specific background staining. If specific staining occurs in the negative tissue control sites, results with the patient specimens must be considered invalid.
SOX10 is a member of the SOX (SRY-related HMG-box) family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of the cell fate. This protein may act as a transcriptional activator after forming a protein complex with other proteins. It acts as a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein and is important for neural crest and peripheral nervous system development. Mutations in this gene are associated with Waardenburg-Shah and Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Protein Aliases: dominant megacolon, mouse, human homolog of; MGC15649; SRY; SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 10; SRY box 10; SRY-related HMG-box gene 10; Transcription factor SOX-10
Gene Aliases: DOM; PCWH; SOX10; WS2E; WS4; WS4C
UniProt ID: (Human) P56693
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 6663