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Steroid 5alpha-Reductase is an important enzyme in androgen physiology because it catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into the more potent 5alpha-dihydro-testosterone, which mediates androgen effects on target tissues. The enzyme exists as two isoforms: type 1, which is expressed mainly in the skin; and type 2, which is expressed mainly in the prostate. In cultured human skin cells, 5alpha-Reductase 1 shows heterogeneity of protein, and has different levels of transcriptional and translational expression. 5alpha-Reductase 1 is expressed in all portions of the hair follicle, whereas 5alpha-Reductase 2 is expressed only in mesenchymal portions. In addition, 5alpha-Reductase 1 is mainly expressed in human breast carcinoma and may play a role in the in situ production and actions of the potent androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, including inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in hormone-dependent human breast carcinoma. The 5alpha-Reductase-3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase complex is present in the human brain, suggesting that the complex may be involved in the synthesis of neuroactive steroids or the catabolism of neurotoxic steroids.
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Protein Aliases: 3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase 1; S5AR 1; SR type 1; Steroid 5-alpha-reductase 1; steroid 5-alpha-reductase type I; steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 1 (3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase alpha 1)
Gene Aliases: S5AR 1; SRD5A1
UniProt ID: (Human) P18405
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 6715
Molecular Function: dehydrogenase