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A recommended positive control tissue for this product is T/NK cell lymphoma, however positive controls are not limited to this tissue type.
The primary antibody is intended for laboratory professional use in the detection of the corresponding protein in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue stained in manual qualitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing. This antibody is intended to be used after the primary diagnosis of tumor has been made by conventional histopathology using non-immunological histochemical stains.
The T cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) is a 17-kDa cytoplasmic granule associated protein also designated as GMP-17, for granule membrane protein of 17 kDa. The GMP-17/TIA-1 molecule is expressed in cells possessing cytolytic potential and could be involved in the signaling cascade of Fas (CD95)-mediated apoptosis. Within hematopoietic cell lines, the 2G9 monoclonal antibody (mAb) reacts with about 90% of CD16+, 50 – 60% of CD8+, and less than 10% of CD4+ normal peripheral blood lymphocytes. It reacts with almost all monocytes and granulocytes. This antibody also reacts with CD4+ activated T-cell clones, activated NK cell clones, and Con activated thymocytes, but not with B lymphocytes or B-cell lines.
Antibody is used with formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections. Pretreatment of deparaffinized tissue with heat-induced epitope retrieval or enzymatic retrieval is recommended. In general, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining techniques allow for the visualization of antigens via the sequential application of a specific antibody to the antigen (primary antibody), a secondary antibody to the primary antibody (link antibody), an enzyme complex and a chromogenic substrate with interposed washing steps. The enzymatic activation of the chromogen results in a visible reaction product at the antigen site. Results are interpreted using a light microscope and aid in the differential diagnosis of pathophysiological processes, which may or may not be associated with a particular antigen.
A positive tissue control must be run with every staining procedure performed. This tissue may contain both positive and negative staining cells or tissue components and serve as both the positive and negative control tissue. External Positive control materials should be fresh autopsy/biopsy/surgical specimens fixed, processed and embedded as soon as possible in the same manner as the patient sample (s). Positive tissue controls are indicative of correctly prepared tissues and proper staining methods. The tissues used for the external positive control materials should be selected from the patient specimens with well-characterized low levels of the positive target activity that gives weak positive staining. The low level of positivity for external positive controls is designed to ensure detection of subtle changes in the primary antibody sensitivity from instability or problems with the staining methodology. A tissue with weak positive staining is more suitable for optimal quality control and for detecting minor levels of reagent degradation.
Internal or external negative control tissue may be used depending on the guidelines and policies that govern the organization to which the end user belongs to. The variety of cell types present in many tissue sections offers internal negative control sites, but this should be verified by the user. The components that do not stain should demonstrate the absence of specific staining, and provide an indication of non-specific background staining. If specific staining occurs in the negative tissue control sites, results with the patient specimens must be considered invalid.
Noggin is involved in numerous developmental processes, such as neural tube fusion and joint formation. The morphogenesis of organs is initiated by a downgrowth from a layer of epithelial stem cells. This process is achieved through the receipt of signals from 1) a WNT protein (WNT3A) to stabilize beta-catenin; and 2) Noggin, which is a bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor. Noggin mutations in unrelated families with proximal symphalangism (SYM1) and multiple synostoses syndrome (SYNS1) have been identified, which have multiple joint fusion as their principal defect.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Protein Aliases: Cytotoxic granule associated RNA binding protein TIA1; Nucleolysin TIA-1 isoform p40; p40 TIA 1; p40-TIA-1; p40-TIA-1 (containing p15-TIA-1); RNA-binding protein TIA-1; T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1; TIA 1; TIA-1; TIA1 protein; TIAL1; TIAR
Gene Aliases: TIA-1; TIA1; WDM
UniProt ID: (Human) P31483
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 7072