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Immunofluorescence analysis of Thioredoxin 1 was performed using 70% confluent log phase HepG2 cells. The cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 10 minutes, permeabilized with 0.1% Triton™ X-100 for 10 minutes, and blocked with 1% BSA for 1 hour at room temperature. The cells were labeled with Thioredoxin 1 (3A1) Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (LFMA0055) at 2ug/ml in 0.1% BSA and incubated for 3 hours at room temperature and then labeled with Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) Superclonal™ Secondary Antibody, Alexa Fluor® 488 conjugate (A28175) at a dilution of 1:2000 for 45 minutes at room temperature (Panel a: green). Nuclei (Panel b: blue) were stained with SlowFade® Gold Antifade Mountant with DAPI (S36938). F-actin (Panel c: red) was stained with Alexa Fluor® 555 Rhodamine Phalloidin (Product # R415, 1:300). Panel d represents the merged image showing cytoplasmic and nuclear localization. Panel e shows the no primary antibody control. The images were captured at 60X magnification.
|Tested species reactivity||Human|
|Host / Isotype||Mouse / IgG2b|
|Immunogen||Purified, recombinant, human thioredoxin 1 protein expressed in E. coli.|
|Storage buffer||HEPES with 0.15M NaCl, 0.01% BSA, 50% glycerol|
|Contains||0.03% sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||-20° C, Avoid Freeze/Thaw Cycles|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|ELISA (ELISA)||Assay dependent|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||2 µg/ml|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||2 µg/ml|
|Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) (IHC (P))||Assay dependent|
|Immunoprecipitation (IP)||2 µg|
|Western Blot (WB)||0.5-2 µg/ml|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
A suggested positive control for this product is HeLa or Jurkat.
Thioredoxins (Trx) are small, multi-functional proteins with oxidoreductase activity and are ubiquitous in essentially all living cells. Trx contains a redox-active disulfide/dithiol group within the conserved Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys active site. The two cystein residues in the conserved active centers can be oxidized to form intramolecular disulfide bonds. Reduction of the active site disulfide in oxidized Trx is catalyzed by Trx reductase with NADPH as the electron donor. The reduced Trx is a hydrogen donor for ribonucleotide reductase, the essential enzyme for DNA synthesis, and a potent general protein disulfide reductase with numerous functions in growth and redox regulations. Specific protein disulfide targets for reduction by Trx include protein disulfide-isomerase (PDI) and a number of transcription factors such as p53 , NF-kB and AP-1 (T1-151). Trx is also capable of removing H2O2, particularly when it is coupled with either methionine sulfoxide reductase or several isoforms of peroxiredoxins.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
ADF; ATL-derived factor; SASP; surface-associated sulphydryl protein; testicular tissue protein Li 199; thioredoxin delta 3; TXN delta 3
TRDX; TRX; TRX1; TXN