Immunofluorescent analysis of Thyroid Hormone Receptor in HepG2 Cells. Cells were grown on chamber slides and fixed with formaldehyde prior to staining. Cells were probed without (control) or with a Thyroid Hormone Receptor monoclonal antibody (Product # MA1-215) at a dilution of 1:20 overnight at 4 C, washed with PBS and incubated with a DyLight-488 conjugated secondary antibody (Product # 35503). Thyroid Hormone Receptor staining (green), F-Actin staining with Phalloidin (red) and nuclei with DAPI (blue) is shown. Images were taken at 60X magnification.
|Tested species reactivity||Human|
|Published species reactivity||Rat, Non-human primate, Human, Mouse, Xenopus|
|Host / Isotype||Mouse / IgG1|
|Immunogen||Purified fragment of human TR beta-1 corresponding to residues 201-456.|
|Contains||0.05% sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||-20° C, Avoid Freeze/Thaw Cycles|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Gel Shift (GS)||Assay dependent|
|Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) (IHC (P))||1:20|
|Immunoprecipitation (IP)||Assay dependent|
|Western Blot (WB)||1:1,000|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
MA1-215 detects thyroid hormone receptor (TR) from human tissues. This antibody recognizes TR beta-1 and also cross-reacts with TR alpha-1.
MA1-215 has been successfully used in Western blot, IF, immunoprecipitation, and gel shift procedures. By Western blot, this antibody detects a 55 and a 52 kDa protein representing recombinant human TR beta-1 expressed in E. coli. MA1-215 immunoprecipitates 52 kDa and 55 kDa proteins, representing TR beta-1 and a 48 kDa protein representing TR alpha-1 expressed in E. coli.
The MA1-215 immunogen is a purified fragment of human TR beta-1 corresponding to amino acid residues 201-456. This antibody recognizes an epitope in the hormone binding domain of hTR beta-1, amino acid residues 235-414. This sequence is conserved in hTR alpha-1.
Thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are ligand-dependent, intracellular proteins that stimulate transcription of specific genes by binding to specific DNA sequences called hormone response elements following activation by the appropriate hormone. Thyroid hormones, through their interaction with TR, effect metabolic processes, growth and development in many tissues by regulating the expression of genes for growth hormone, malic enzyme and several hepatic proteins. There are two forms of TR; TR alpha (on chromosome 17) and TR beta (on chromosome 3). Each of these isoforms also has two isoforms; TR alpha-1 and TRv alpha-2, and TR beta-1 and TR beta-2 respectively. TR alpha-1 and 2 are identical through amino acid 370 where their sequences diverge. TRv alpha-2, which does not bind T3 and is a strong negative regulator of the functional TR, is 80 amino acids longer than TR alpha-1.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
The p160 coactivator PAS-B motif stabilizes nuclear receptor binding and contributes to isoform-specific regulation by thyroid hormone receptors.
MA1-215 was used in western blot to investigate the relationship between p160 coactivators and thyroid hormone receptors.
|Privalsky ML,Lee S,Hahm JB,Young BM,Fong RN,Chan IH||The Journal of biological chemistry (284:19554)||2009|
Inhibition of apoptotic potency by ligand stimulated thyroid hormone receptors located in mitochondria.
MA1-215 was used in western blot to investigate the role of thyroid hormone receptors in apoptosis
|Saelim N,Holstein D,Chocron ES,Camacho P,Lechleiter JD||Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death (12:1781)||2007|
The rat thyroid hormone receptor (TR) Deltabeta3 displays cell-, TR isoform-, and thyroid hormone response element-specific actions.
MA1-215 was used in western blot to investigate the mechanism for rat thyroid hormone receptor Deltabeta3 actions.
|Harvey CB,Bassett JH,Maruvada P,Yen PM,Williams GR||Endocrinology (148:1764)||2007|
Thyroid-hormone-dependent negative regulation of thyrotropin beta gene by thyroid hormone receptors: study with a new experimental system using CV1 cells.
MA1-215 was used in western blot to investigate the role of thyroid hormone receptors in regulation of thyrotropin beta gene
|Nakano K,Matsushita A,Sasaki S,Misawa H,Nishiyama K,Kashiwabara Y,Nakamura H||The Biochemical journal (378:549)||2004|
Thyroid hormone action in the absence of thyroid hormone receptor DNA-binding in vivo.
MA1-215 was used in western blot to investigate the possible role of DNA-binding in thyroid hormone's nuclear functions
|Shibusawa N,Hashimoto K,Nikrodhanond AA,Liberman MC,Applebury ML,Liao XH,Robbins JT,Refetoff S,Cohen RN,Wondisford FE||The Journal of clinical investigation (112:588)||2003|
|Non-human primate||Not Cited||
Ligand-dependent degradation of retinoid X receptors does not require transcriptional activity or coactivator interactions.
MA1-215 was used in western blot to study the agonist-stimulated RXR degradation
|Osburn DL,Shao G,Seidel HM,Schulman IG||Molecular and cellular biology (21:4909)||2001|
Cloning and characterization of two novel thyroid hormone receptor beta isoforms.
MA1-215 was used in western blot to characterize two novel isoforms of thyroid hormone beta receptor.
|Williams GR||Molecular and cellular biology (20:8329)||2000|
Alternative mRNA splicing of SMRT creates functional diversity by generating corepressor isoforms with different affinities for different nuclear receptors.
MA1-215 was used in EMSA to investigate the alternative mRNA splicing of silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors.
|Goodson ML,Jonas BA,Privalsky ML||The Journal of biological chemistry (280:7493)||2005|
Multiple messenger ribonucleic acid variants regulate cell-specific expression of human thyroid hormone receptor beta1.
MA1-215 was used in immunocytochemistry to demonstrate the function of human thyroid hormone receptor beta1 5-UTR mRNAs.
|Frankton S,Harvey CB,Gleason LM,Fadel A,Williams GR||Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) (18:1631)||2004|
Conformational changes of human beta 1 thyroid hormone receptor induced by binding of 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine.
MA1-215 was used in immunoprecipitation to perform structural analysis of human thyroid hormone receptor beta 1
|Bhat MK,Parkison C,McPhie P,Liang CM,Cheng SY||Biochemical and biophysical research communications (195:385)||1993|