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Immunofluorescence analysis of Beta - Tubulin was done on 70% confluent log phase U-2 OS cells. The cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 15 minutes, permeabilized with 0.25% Triton™ X-100 for 10 minutes, and blocked with 5% BSA for 1 hour at room temperature. The cells were labeled with Beta - Tubulin Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (322600) at 0.5µg/mL in 1% BSA and incubated for 3 hours at room temperature and then labeled with Alexa Flour 488 Rabbit Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (A11059) at a dilution of 1:400 for 30 minutes at room temperature (Panel a: green). Nuclei (Panel b: blue) were stained with SlowFade® Gold Antifade Mountant with DAPI (S36938). F-actin (Panel c: red) was stained with Alexa Fluor 594 Phalloidin (A12381). Panel d is a merged image showing cytoplasmic localization. Panel e shows no primary antibody control. The images were captured at 20X magnification.
|Tested species reactivity||C. elegans, Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Published species reactivity||Dog, Rat, Mouse, Human|
|Host / Isotype||Mouse / IgG1, kappa|
|Clone||2 28 33|
|Immunogen||Beta-tubulin from sea urchin (S. purpuratus) sperm.|
|Storage buffer||PBS, pH 7.4|
|Contains||0.1% sodium azide|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||1-3 µg/ml|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||1-3 ug/ml|
|Western Blot (WB)||1-3 ug/ml|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
Beta tubulins are one of two core protein families (alpha and beta tubulins) that heterodimerize and assemble to form microtubules. Beta-III tubulin is primarily expressed in neurons and may be involved in neurogenesis, axon guidance and maintenance. Mutations in this gene are the cause of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 3. Beta-III tubulin was also detected in Sertoli cells of the testis and transiently in non-neuronal embryonic tissues. Glutamate residues at the C-terminus of beta III tubulin can be glutamylated. The precise function of such modifications is unclear. Tubulin is phosphorylated on Ser-172 by CDK1 during cell cycle progression. Ser-172 phosphorylation inhibits tubulin incorporation into microtubules.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Involvement of a P2X7 Receptor in the Acrosome Reaction Induced by ATP in Rat Spermatozoa.
32-2600 was used in western blot to study the role of a P2X7 receptor in the acrosome reaction in rat spermatozoa
|Torres-Fuentes JL,Rios M,Moreno RD||Journal of cellular physiology (230:3068)||2015|
Dexamethasone potentiates in vitro blood-brain barrier recovery after primary blast injury by glucocorticoid receptor-mediated upregulation of ZO-1 tight junction protein.
32-2600 was used in western blot to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone on in vitro blood-brain barrier recovery after injury
|Hue CD,Cho FS,Cao S,Dale Bass CR,Meaney DF,Morrison B||Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism (35:1191)||2015|
Inhibiting peripheral serotonin synthesis reduces obesity and metabolic dysfunction by promoting brown adipose tissue thermogenesis.
32-2600 was used in western blot to investigate serotonin signaling in adipose tissue
|Crane JD,Palanivel R,Mottillo EP,Bujak AL,Wang H,Ford RJ,Collins A,Blümer RM,Fullerton MD,Yabut JM,Kim JJ,Ghia JE,Hamza SM,Morrison KM,Schertzer JD,Dyck JR,Khan WI,Steinberg GR||Nature medicine (21:166)||2015|
Coupling of lipolysis and de novo lipogenesis in brown, beige, and white adipose tissues during chronic β3-adrenergic receptor activation.
32-2600 was used in western blot to investigate the effect of chronic beta3-adrenergic receptor activation on lipolysis and de novo lipogenesis in brown, beige, and white adipose tissues.
|Mottillo EP,Balasubramanian P,Lee YH,Weng C,Kershaw EE,Granneman JG||Journal of lipid research (55:2276)||2014|
The neuroprotective effect of Klotho is mediated via regulation of members of the redox system.
32-2600 was used in western blot to investigate the mechanism for the neuroprotective effect of Klotho.
|Zeldich E,Chen CD,Colvin TA,Bove-Fenderson EA,Liang J,Tucker Zhou TB,Harris DA,Abraham CR||The Journal of biological chemistry (289:24700)||2014|
ZO proteins redundantly regulate the transcription factor DbpA/ZONAB.
32-2600 was used in western blot to study the role of ZO proteins in the regulation of transcription factor DbpA/ZONAB
|Spadaro D,Tapia R,Jond L,Sudol M,Fanning AS,Citi S||The Journal of biological chemistry (289:22500)||2014|
CRL4A(CRBN) E3 ubiquitin ligase restricts BK channel activity and prevents epileptogenesis.
32-2600 was used in western blot to investigate how ubiquitination of BK channels contributes to epilepsy.
|Liu J,Ye J,Zou X,Xu Z,Feng Y,Zou X,Chen Z,Li Y,Cang Y||Nature communications (5:null)||2014|
GPR30 activation is neither necessary nor sufficient for acute neuroprotection by 17β-estradiol after an ischemic injury in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.
32-2600 was used in western blot to examine the role of GPR30 in 7β-estradiol-mediated neuroprotection after an ischemic injury in an organotypic hippocampal slice culture model.
|Lamprecht MR,Morrison B||Brain research (1563:131)||2014|
Human granulosa cells: insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors and aromatase expression modulation by metformin.
32-2600 was used in western blot to study insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors and aromatase expression in human granulosa cells.
|Fuhrmeister IP,Branchini G,Pimentel AM,Ferreira GD,Capp E,Brum IS,von Eye Corleta H||Gynecologic and obstetric investigation (77:156)||2014|
|Mouse||Not Cited||p38γ and p38δ kinases regulate the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-induced cytokine production by controlling ERK1/2 protein kinase pathway activation.||Risco A,del Fresno C,Mambol A,Alsina-Beauchamp D,MacKenzie KF,Yang HT,Barber DF,Morcelle C,Arthur JS,Ley SC,Ardavin C,Cuenda A||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (109:11200)||2012|
Conserved signaling through vascular endothelial growth (VEGF) receptor family members in murine lymphatic endothelial cells.
32-2600 was used in western blot to study the conservation of VEGF-R family signalling in lymphocytic endothelial cells from mice.
|Coso S,Zeng Y,Sooraj D,Williams ED||Experimental cell research (317:2397)||2011|
Control of proliferation in astrocytoma cells by the receptor tyrosine kinase/PI3K/AKT signaling axis and the use of PI-103 and TCN as potential anti-astrocytoma therapies.
32-2600 was used in western blot to characterize 4 new tumor lines and test potential inhibitors of astrocytoma and glioblastoma.
|Gürsel DB,Connell-Albert YS,Tuskan RG,Anastassiadis T,Walrath JC,Hawes JJ,Amlin-Van Schaick JC,Reilly KM||Neuro-oncology (13:610)||2011|
|Rat||Not Cited||Plasma glucose lowering mechanisms of catalpol, an active principle from roots of Rehmannia glutinosa, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.||Shieh JP,Cheng KC,Chung HH,Kerh YF,Yeh CH,Cheng JT||Journal of agricultural and food chemistry (59:3747)||2011|
|Human||Not Cited||Quantitative profiling of in vivo-assembled RNA-protein complexes using a novel integrated proteomic approach.||Tsai BP,Wang X,Huang L,Waterman ML||Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP (10:null)||2011|
|Human||Not Cited||A death receptor-associated anti-apoptotic protein, BRE, inhibits mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.||Li Q,Ching AK,Chan BC,Chow SK,Lim PL,Ho TC,Ip WK,Wong CK,Lam CW,Lee KK,Chan JY,Chui YL||The Journal of biological chemistry (279:52106)||2004|
||p38γ and p38δ kinases regulate the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-induced cytokine production by controlling ERK1/2 protein kinase pathway activation.||Risco A,del Fresno C,Mambol A,Alsina-Beauchamp D,MacKenzie KF,Yang HT,Barber DF,Morcelle C,Arthur JS,Ley SC,Ardavin C,Cuenda A||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (109:11200)||2012|
beta 3; beta 3 class III; beta-4; betaIII-tubulin; CDCBM; CFEOM3A; class III beta-tubulin; neuron-specific class III beta-tubulin; TUBB4; tubulin; tubulin beta-3 chain; tubulin beta-4 chain; tubulin beta-III; tubulin, beta 3 class III
3200002H15Rik; beta-4; CDCBM; CDCBM1; CFEOM3; CFEOM3A; FEOM3; M(beta)3; M(beta)6; TUBB3; TUBB4