In my last mining article, I explained why correct mineral identification in mining is essential to determining how rock formed and the importance of mineral inclusions. In this article, we will look at three examples that demonstrate how a Raman imaging microscope provided a powerful method to analyze mineral inclusions: Inclusions in Diamond Raman spectroscopy allows inclusions to be identified while they are still encapsulated in the diamond, because of the confocal advantage and high spatial resolution that Raman microscopy offers. Utilizing confocal Raman microscopy to analyze below the surface is especially useful when exposing an inclusion might contaminate it and prevent further analysis, as is the case with isotopic analysis. Thin Sections with Cover Slips Many thin sections have been preserved with cover slips, and thus present a similar analytical challenge as unexposed mineral inclusions. As with unexposed mineral inclusions, confocal Raman spectroscopy allows us to see past the cover slip and epoxy and analyze the minerals underneath. Melt and Fluid Inclusions Raman spectroscopy can also identify the volatile contents of fluid and melt inclusions. Fluid inclusions are particularly challenging to study by other techniques because their contents are volatile and disappear as soon as the inclusion is breached by polishing. Read the Raman Mapping of Mineral Inclusions in Diamonds and other Mineral Samples application note to see complete study data.