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Bermuda grass has short, flat leaves and creeping stolons (aka runners) that travel above and below ground, helping it to develop a dense turf.1 The species is widely naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions and is an invasive species in many locales.2 Considered one of the world's most serious agricultural and environmental grasses, this fast growing and drought tolerant perennial invades urban areas, roads, railroad tracks, crops, and more. However, it’s also used in many countries as pasture grass, lawn turf, and anti-erosion ground cover.2 Bermuda grass sheds an abundance of wind-borne pollen. It has severe allergenicity and is one of the most significant grass types in terms of allergy.3 Those sensitized to Bermuda grass typically display symptoms of allergic rhinitis (hay fever), which affects the nose, eyes, and throat. In addition, grass pollen can trigger or worsen asthma symptoms.4 Other names for Bermuda grass include dog’s tooth, Bahama grass, couch grass, devil grass, and star grass.2
Bermuda grass is thought to have originated in Africa; however, it has spread virtually worldwide to places such as Asia, Europe, the Caribbean, Pacific Ocean islands, Australasia, Antarctica, and North, Central, and South America.2,6
Many patients with Bermuda grass allergy can experience symptoms when exposed to other allergens such as tree, weed, or grass pollens, making it difficult to determine which pollen is causing the symptoms, especially when pollen seasons are overlapping. This is called cross-reactivity and occurs when your body's immune system identifies the proteins, or components, in different substances as being structurally similar or biologically related, thus triggering a response.8 Other respiratory allergens that may cause reactions associated with Bermuda grass are other grasses, including wheat, along with tree and weed pollens.8
If you experience an itchy mouth or throat after eating fresh fruit or raw vegetables, you may suffer from oral allergy syndrome (OAS), sometimes called pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS). This condition is also caused by your immune system’s reaction to similar proteins, or components, found in different allergens. It is quite common, with up to 25% of children with allergic rhinitis (i.e., hay fever) also suffering from OAS.9 Common plant foods involved in OAS for Bermuda grass allergy include melon, watermelon, citrus, banana, pineapple, persimmon, zucchini, tomato, hazelnut, peanut, and many more.8
Knowing the proteins, or components, within each allergen that are triggering your symptoms can help guide your management plan. With that in mind, and based on your symptom history, your healthcare provider may suggest something called a specific IgE component test, which can help reveal other pollens and foods you may react to. Results from this test can also help your healthcare provider decide if allergen immunotherapy may reduce your symptoms.8
Already have your specific IgE component test results?
Your component test results will include the name of the components (a series of letters and numbers). Your healthcare provider will likely review the results with you, but here you’ll find an at-a-glance breakdown you can use as a reference. Simply match the component names to the list below to see what they mean in terms of symptom management.8
*These products may not be approved for clinical use in your country. Please work with your healthcare provider to understand availability.
nCyn d 1
rPhl p 7
rPhl p 12
The management of allergic rhinitis includes avoidance of relevant allergens, symptomatic treatment, and allergen immunotherapy.9,11,12
Bermuda grass allergy symptoms can be similar to many other pollen allergies and may include:4,9
If you’re sensitized to Bermuda grass and have asthma, grass pollen may trigger or worsen asthma symptoms, such as coughing and wheezing.4,9
While symptoms are usually limited to the throat, nose, and eyes, some people who are severely allergic to grass may also develop hives (urticaria) upon contact with its pollen.5
Together with your symptom history, skin-prick testing or specific IgE blood testing can help determine if you are sensitized to a particular allergen. If you are diagnosed with an allergy, your healthcare provider will work with you to create a management plan.
Bermuda grass pollination peaks from early summer through autumn, but it can persist throughout the year.7
Responses close to anaphylaxis have occurred in the most dangerous reaction cases.5 Plus, anaphylaxis has been reported in cases where abraded skin contacted allergenic grass.10