Stem cells are unspecialized cells that are able to give rise to somatic and differentiated cells. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can become virtually any tissue in the body; adult stem reside in the tissues, are multi-potent, and have more limited differentiation potential. Adult stem cells are able to self-renew, often after a long period of quiescence, and differentiate through symmetrical or asymmetrical divisions. The ability of stem cells to originate a wide variety of tissue types under the physiological or experimental conditions has made them a subject of great interest to researchers studying various types of diseases.

Free Poster: Antibody Markers for Stem Cell Research


Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are somatic cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell-like state. 

Hematopoietic stem cells

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are multi-potent cells that give rise to all of the cells in the blood, including B and T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, platelets, and erythrocytes. HSCs are very small and are non-adherent cells that are very difficult to purify or visualize by microscopy. In their quiescent state, HSCs can be found in the red bone marrow. Typically, HSC are identified by flow cytometry using 10-14 antibody panels targeting various cell surface antigens.

Doulatov S1, Notta F, Laurenti E, Dick JE (2012) Hematopoiesis: a human perspective. Cell Stem Cell 10(2):120-36.


Key hematopoietic stem cell targets: CD14CD31CD33CD34CD38,CD41CD44CD45CD90 (Thy1)CD105CD106CD117 (c-kit)CD127c-mycLy6A/E (sca-1)SCF (kit ligand)

Mesenchymal stem cells


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent cells that can differentiate into many cell types including bone, fat, cartilage, muscle, and skin. MSCs were initially isolated from bone marrow samples, but more recently they have been found in many other types of tissue resulting in a heterogeneous and abundant population of cells with high differentiation potential. The possible use of MSC in treating various diseases such as cardiovascular disease and Crohn’s disease is a popular stem cell research topic.

Hoch AI1, Leach JK (2014) Concise review: optimizing expansion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells for clinical applications. Stem Cells Transl Med (5):643-52. 

Key mesenchymal stem cell targets: CD10, CD29, CD31, CD34, CD44, CD45, CD49dCD49e, CD51, CD71CD90, CD105, CD106, CD117CD166, Ly6A/E (sca-1)

Endothelial stem cells

Endothelial stem cells (ESC) are multipotent cells that reside in bone marrow and differentiate into endothelial cells (EC) which eventually become the endothelium that lines the walls of blood and lymphatic vessels. ESC have been found to play a critical role in cardiovascular diseases.

Wilson HK1, Canfield SG, Shusta EV, Palecek SP (2014) Concise review: Tissue-specific micro-vascular endothelial cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Stem Cells



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