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Pierce™ Bovine Serum Albumin Standard Pre-Diluted Set (Thermo Scientific™)

Thermo Scientific Pierce BSA Protein Assay Standards are high-quality reference samples for generating accurate standard curves and calibration controls in total protein assays.

Features of BSA Protein Assay Standards:

Convenient—complete set containing seven ready-to-use dilutions
Universal—recognized as the industry standard for protein quantitation in colorimetric protein assays
Pure and stable—supplied in ultrapure 0.9% saline solution with 0.05% sodium azide

These bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions are protein concentration reference standards for use in BCA, Bradford and other protein assay protocols. BSA is the universally accepted reference protein for total protein quantitation. The set of standards is prepared from a stock solution that is calibrated by direct comparison to purified BSA (Fraction V) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

Applications:
• Protein assay quantitation standard (BCA Protein Assay, Coomassie-Bradford Assay, etc.)
• Protein recovery control for desalting and other column procedures
• General calibration of spectrophotometer UV-lamp (absorbance at 280nm)

Selection of a protein standard is potentially the greatest source of error in any protein assay. The best choice for a standard is a purified, known concentration of the most abundant protein contained in the samples being tested. Often, a highly purified, known concentration of the protein of interest is not available or it is too expensive to use as the standard, or the sample itself is a mixture of many proteins (e.g., cell lysate). In such cases, the best standard is one that will produce a normal (i.e., average) color response curve with the selected protein assay method and is readily available to any researcher. BSA is such a protein, and the Pierce Albumin Standards are the most convenient source of ready-to-use BSA standard.

For greatest accuracy in estimating total protein concentration in unknown samples, it is essential to include a standard curve each time the assay is performed. This is particularly true for the protein assay methods that produce non-linear standard curves. Deciding on the number of standards and replicates used to define the standard curve depends upon the degree of non-linearity in the standard curve and the degree of accuracy required. In general, fewer points are needed to construct a standard curve if the color response is linear. Typically, standard curves are constructed using at least two replicates for each point on the curve.

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Pierce™ Bovine Serum Albumin Standard Ampules, 2 mg/mL

Pierce™ Bovine Serum Albumin Standard Ampules, 2 mg/mL (Thermo Scientific™)

Thermo Scientific Pierce BSA Protein Assay Standards are high-quality reference samples for generating accurate standard curves and calibration controls in total protein assays.

Features of BSA Protein Assay Standards:

Convenient—1 mL ampules
Universal—recognized as the industry standard for protein quantitation in colorimetric protein assays
Pure and stable—supplied in ultrapure 0.9% saline solution with 0.05% sodium azide; room temperature stable
Accurate and consistent—precisely formulated at 2.00 +/-0.03 mg/mL compared to an NIST reference

These bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions are protein concentration reference standards for use in BCA, Bradford and other protein assay protocols. BSA is the universally accepted reference protein for total protein quantitation. The albumin standard is precisely formulated at 2 mg/mL in an ultrapure 0.9% sodium chloride (saline) solution. The concentration of the stock solution is calibrated by direct comparison to purified BSA (Fraction V) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

Applications:
• Protein assay quantitation standard (BCA Protein Assay, Coomassie-Bradford Assay, etc.)
• Protein recovery control for desalting and other column procedures
• General calibration of spectrophotometer UV-lamp (absorbance at 280nm)

Selection of a protein standard is potentially the greatest source of error in any protein assay. The best choice for a standard is a purified, known concentration of the most abundant protein contained in the samples being tested. Often, a highly purified, known concentration of the protein of interest is not available or it is too expensive to use as the standard, or the sample itself is a mixture of many proteins (e.g., cell lysate). In such cases, the best standard is one that will produce a normal (i.e., average) color response curve with the selected protein assay method and is readily available to any researcher. BSA is such a protein, and the Pierce Albumin Standards are the most convenient source of ready-to-use BSA standard.

For greatest accuracy in estimating total protein concentration in unknown samples, it is essential to include a standard curve each time the assay is performed. This is particularly true for the protein assay methods that produce non-linear standard curves. Deciding on the number of standards and replicates used to define the standard curve depends upon the degree of non-linearity in the standard curve and the degree of accuracy required. In general, fewer points are needed to construct a standard curve if the color response is linear. Typically, standard curves are constructed using at least two replicates for each point on the curve.

For added safety when opening glass ampules, consider using our Ampule Breakers, which are disposable safety devices that protect the fingers when breaking open a glass ampule.

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Pierce™ Bovine Serum Albumin Standard Pre-Diluted Set

ProteinSEQ™ Protein A Quantitation Kit (Applied Biosystems™)

The ProteinSEQ™ Protein A Quantitation Kit contains all reagents and buffers needed for the PCR-based quantitation of Protein A leeched from Protein A purification columns. The kit utilizes TaqMan assay technology to deliver a quantitation method with the highest sensitivity and widest dynamic range of all methods currently available. The kit contains sufficient reagents for 200 reactions.

• Quantitate residual Protein A contaminants with ultra-high sensitivity
• Accelerate process development with more valid test results per run
• Reduce assay hands-on time with less sample dilution and preparation
• Achieve unprecedented productivity with near-5-log assay dynamic range

ProteinSEQ Protein A quantitation
The ProteinSEQ assay platform uses qPCR technology to measure protein process contaminants with extraordinary sensitivity and unparalleled dynamic range. Residual Protein A leeching from purification columns can be accurately measured from 2.56-8000 pg/mL, with outstanding quantitation efficiency and dilutional linearity.

Streamlined assay worflow
The ProteinSEQ Protein A Quantitation Kit is the only instrument platform-based Protein A quantitation solution to offer single-digit picogram sensitivity and nearly 5 logs of dynamic range. Laboratory workflow is greatly accelerated due to the reduction in the number of sample dilutions and replicates in each run.

What you get
The ProteinSEQ Protein A Quantitation Kit contains:
• Capture beads loaded with industry standard anti-Protein A antibody
• Protein A standards
• All reagents and buffers needed to enable PCR-based quantitation of Protein A

For a kit that does not include the capture beads and standards that may be used for customized Protein A measurements or for the quantitation of other purification ligands, please see the ProteinSEQ™ Protein A Core Kit (Cat. No. A28406).

ProteinSEQ™ HCP Core Kit (Applied Biosystems™)

The ProteinSEQ™ HCP Core Kit is a customizable kit that enables users to customize their ProteinSEQ host cell protein measurements for their own cell lines. It contains buffers and reagents needed to perform 200 PCR reactions to quantify host cell proteins of any cell line for which there is an antibody available.

Features include:

• Precise—quantitate host cell protein contaminants with excellent precision
• Fast—helps accelerate process development with more valid test results per run
• Efficient—helps reduce hands-on time with less sample dilution and preparation
• Reproducible—achieve unprecedented productivity with 4-log dynamic range

ProteinSEQ CHO HCP quantitation
The ProteinSEQ assay platform uses qPCR technology to measure protein process contaminants with extraordinary sensitivity and unparalleled dynamic range. Host cell protein contaminants from any cell line can be measured easily and effectively by incorporating any anti-HCP antibody into the ProteinSEQ workflow.

Streamlined workflow
The ProteinSEQ HCP Core Kit is the only instrument platform-based HCP quantitation solution to deliver a customizable HCP assay with class-leading sensitivity and 4-log dynamic range. The kit helps accelerate laboratory workflows because the number of sample dilutions and replicates is reduced in each run.

Pierce™ BCA Protein Assay Kit (Thermo Scientific™)

The Thermo Scientific Pierce BCA Protein Assay Kit is a two-component, high-precision, detergent-compatible assay reagent set to measure (A562nm) total protein concentration compared to a protein standard. Used in more labs than any other detergent-compatible protein assay, Pierce BCA Reagents provide accurate determination of protein concentration with most sample types encountered in protein research. The Pierce BCA Assay can be used to assess yields in whole cell lysates and affinity-column fractions, as well as to monitor protein contamination in industrial applications. Compared to most dye-binding methods, the BCA Assay is affected much less by protein compositional differences, providing greater protein-to-protein uniformity.

Features of the BCA Protein Assay Kit:
• Colorimetric—estimate visually or measure with a standard spectrophotometer or plate reader (562nm)
• Excellent uniformity—exhibits less protein-to-protein variation than dye-binding methods
• Compatible—unaffected by typical concentrations of most ionic and nonionic detergents
• Moderately fast—much easier and four times faster than the classical Lowry method
• High linearity—linear working range for BSA equals 20 to 2000 µg/mL
• Sensitive—detect down to 5 µg/mL with the enhanced protocol

Applications:
• Studying protein:protein interactions
• Measuring column fractions after affinity chromatography
• Estimating percent recovery of membrane proteins from cell extracts
• High-throughput screening of fusion proteins

How the BCA Protein Assay Detects Protein:
The BCA Protein Assay combines the well-known reduction of Cu2+ to Cu1+ by protein in an alkaline medium with the highly sensitive and selective colorimetric detection of the cuprous cation (Cu1+) by bicinchoninic acid. The first step is the chelation of copper with protein in an alkaline environment to form a light blue complex. In this reaction, known as the biuret reaction, peptides containing three or more amino acid residues form a colored chelate complex with cupric ions in an alkaline environment containing sodium potassium tartrate.

In the second step of the color development reaction, bicinchoninic acid (BCA) reacts with the reduced (cuprous) cation that was formed in step one. The intense purple-colored reaction product results from the chelation of two molecules of BCA with one cuprous ion. The BCA/copper complex is water-soluble and exhibits a strong linear absorbance at 562 nm with increasing protein concentrations. The BCA reagent is approximately 100 times more sensitive (lower limit of detection) than the pale blue color of the first reaction.

The reaction that leads to BCA color formation is strongly influenced by four amino acid residues (cysteine or cystine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) in the amino acid sequence of the protein. However, unlike the Coomassie dye-binding methods, the universal peptide backbone also contributes to color formation, helping to minimize variability caused by protein compositional differences.

For more information, see the article "Chemistry of Protein Assays" in the Protein Methods Library.

Qubit™ Protein Assay Kit (Invitrogen™)

The Qubit Protein Assay Kit is designed specifically for use with the Qubit Fluorometer. Using between 1 and 20 µl of your sample, this assay can quantitate samples ranging from 12.5 µg⁄ml to 5 mg⁄ml and exhibits low protein to protein variation. The assay is highly selective for proteins and is designed to be accurate in the presence of reducing reagents, but not in the presence of a large amount of detergent. Common contaminants, such as reducing reagents (DTT, β-mercaptoethanol), salts, free nucleotides, amino acids, solvents, or DNA, but not detergents, are well tolerated in the assay. Slight protocol modifications are required for other contaminants. The kit provides concentrated assay reagent, dilution buffer, and pre-diluted BSA standards. Simply dilute the reagent using the buffer provided, add your sample (any volume between 1 µL and 20 µL is acceptable), and read the concentration.

Which product to choose for fluorometric protein quantitation?
• For 1–20 samples: use this Qubit Protein Assay Kit with the Qubit Fluorometer
• For 20–2000 samples: use the Quant-iT Protein Assay Kit with microplate reader

Notes:
1. All Qubit assay kits can be used with the Qubit 1.0, Qubit 2.0, Qubit 3, and Qubit 4 fluorometers.
2. 500 µL thin-walled PCR tubes are required but not included.

Rapid ELISA Mouse mAb Isotyping Kit (Thermo Scientific™)

The Thermo Scientific Pierce Rapid ELISA Mouse mAb Isotyping Kit provides antigen-independent determination of mouse monoclonal antibody isotype using a microplate method that enables multiple samples to be tested in about one hour.

Features of the Rapid ELISA Mouse mAb Isotyping Kit:

Fast—determine antibody isotype in approx. 1 hour; considerably faster than traditional ELISA kits
Convenient—eight-well strip format allows partial use of the plate; use one strip (column) for each sample (12 samples per plate)
Specific—characterize antibodies for six different subclasses and two different light-chain types
Sensitive—accurate characterization with samples containing at least 3 ng/mL of test antibody
Flexible—kit is compatible with hybridoma cell culture supernatant, ascites fluid or purified antibodies
Cost effective—cost per assay is less than with single-use assay strips or cassettes
No special equipment needed—assess results visually or measure quantitatively using an ordinary ELISA plate reader (450nm)
Complete and easy to use—includes precoated plates, detecting antibody, buffers, and TMB substrate and stop solutions

This fast assay uses ELISA strip-plates that are pre-coated in different wells with anti-mouse heavy-chain capture antibodies (anti-IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3, IgA and IgM) or anti-mouse light-chain capture antibody (kappa or lambda). This approach eliminates the need to purify and immobilize an antigen to determine immunoglobulin isotype (antibody subclass and light chain identity). A mouse monoclonal antibody sample applied to the wells can be isotyped within one hour. Results are evaluated qualitatively by visual inspection or quantitatively by measuring the absorbance at 450nm.

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Pierce™ Rapid Antibody Isotyping Kit - Mouse
Pierce™ Rapid Antibody Isotyping Kit plus Kappa and Lambda - Mouse

Pierce™ HA-Tag IP/Co-IP Kit (Thermo Scientific™)

The Thermo Scientific Pierce HA Tag IP/Co-IP Kit provides the affinity resin, positive control and other reagents necessary to perform immunoprecipitation (IP) or co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) reactions with an HA-tagged bait protein.

Features of the HA-Tag IP/Co-IP Kit:

Improved—updated kit includes more immobilized antibody resin and improved protocol along with GST-PI3K-SH2-HA fusion protein as a positive control
Specific—highly specific anti-HA monoclonal antibody provides high-yield immunoprecipitation products and clean Western blot detection
Compatible—includes protocols and reagents for multiple elution conditions to accommodate different protein sensitivities and downstream applications
Robust—the kit and the anti-HA agarose are compatible with various cell lysates and physiologic (non-denaturing) buffer systems
Convenient and easy—complete kit includes all necessary reagents, convenient spin columns and easy-to-follow instructions

This kit is based on crosslinked beaded agarose to which a highly specific anti-HA antibody is covalently immobilized. The ready-to-use affinity resin, together with the included buffers, microcentrifuge spin columns, positive control, and easy-to-follow instructions, constitute a complete set of reagents sufficient for 25 for IP or Co-IP assays. Upon incubation with a sample containing the tagged fusion protein, interaction complexes involving the HA-tagged bait protein are captured on the agarose beads. After simple washing steps, the specific protein interaction complex is easily eluted from the resin in the supplied elution buffer or SDS-PAGE sample loading buffer for subsequent analysis.

The hemagglutinin (HA) peptide (YPYDVPDYA), derived from the human influenza virus HA protein is one of several fusion protein tags used for recombinant protein expression. Utilizing a specific, high-affinity immobilized antibody, HA-tagged fusion proteins can be quickly purified from bacterial and mammalian cell lysates as well as from the Pierce Human in vitro translation reactions. For co-immunoprecipitation reactions, simple wash steps allow enrichment and elution of specific protein interaction complexes into the supplied elution buffer or SDS-PAGE sample loading buffer for subsequent analysis.

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ProteinSEQ™ CHO HCP Quantitation Kit (Applied Biosystems™)

The ProteinSEQ™ CHO HCP Quantitation Kit is an assay kit containing all reagents and buffers needed to perform 200 PCR reactions to quantify process-independent host cell proteins from CHO cell lines. It combines a broadly reactive anti-CHO HCP antibody with a qPCR-based TaqMan™ Assay platform to enable measurements of HCPs with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range.

The ProteinSEQ CHO HCP Quantitation Kit contains:

• Capture beads loaded with anti-CHO HCP antibody
• CHO HCP standards
• All reagents and buffers needed to perform 200 PCR reactions for the process-independent quantitation of host cell proteins

Features include:

• Precise—quantitate host cell protein contaminants with excellent precision
• Fast—helps accelerate process development with more valid test results per run
• Efficient—helps reduce hands-on time with less sample dilution and preparation
• Reproducible—achieve unprecedented productivity with 4-log dynamic range

ProteinSEQ CHO HCP quantitation
The ProteinSEQ assay platform uses qPCR technology to measure protein process contaminants with extraordinary sensitivity and unparalleled dynamic range. Host cell protein contaminants from CHO cell lines can be accurately measured from 0.5–3,150 ng/mL, with outstanding quantitation efficiency and dilutional linearity.

Streamlined workflow
The ProteinSEQ CHO HCP Quantitation Kit is the only instrument platform-based HCP quantitation solution to deliver a generic, process-independent HCP assay with class-leading sensitivity and 4-log dynamic range. The kit helps accelerate laboratory workflows because the number of sample dilutions and replicates is reduced in each run.

Tango™ Open Enabling Model

The Tango™ Assay technology combines the benefits of the Tango™ assay platform with the highly accurate, sensitive, and live cell GeneBLAzer® Beta-lactamase reporter system. The Tango™ assay measures protein-protein interactions in live mammalian cells. One of the proteins of interest is anchored to cell surface either by its own transmembrane domains or through fusion to CD8 using a "bait" vector provided in this kit. The "bait" vector also provides at its intracellular C-terminus, an in-frame fusion to an exogenous transcription factor, GAL4-VP16. Interposed between the protein of interest and the transcription factor is a specific cleavage sequence for a non-native protease. This chimeric receptor protein is expressed in a cell line containing the beta-lactamase reporter gene responsive to the transcription factor. The "prey" vectors allow an interacting protein to be expressed as a protease fusion protein that recognizes and cleaves the site between the anchored membrane protein and transcription factor. The assay is performed by adding a stimulus to the growing cells for a defined period and measuring the activity of the reporter gene. Activation of the reporter gene provides a quantifiable measurement of the degree of interaction between the anchored membrane protein and the protease-tagged interaction partner and is unaffected by other signaling pathways in the cell, providing an exquisitely specific readout of protein-protein interaction.

Easy-Titer™ Human IgM Assay Kit (Thermo Scientific™)

The Thermo Scientific Easy-Titer Human IgM Assay Kit includes antibody-sensitized microspheres to measure the specific concentration of antibodies by an easy and rapid microagglutination technique using standard microplates and UV-Vis plate reader (spectrophotometer). This kit is specific for human IgM and, unlike total protein assays, can specifically measure the concentration of target antibody in samples (e.g., serum, plasma, culture supernatant) that contain other proteins. It is sensitive, requiring very small sample volumes. Antibody concentration is determined from the assay response (absorbance) by comparison to a standard curve prepared using dilutions of a known antibody sample (sold separately).

General features of Easy-Titer Antibody Assay Kits:

Antibody-based specificity—measure concentration of target antibody in a sample, not just total protein; no need to purify antibody to assess its concentration
Faster and easier than ELISA—three-component, homogenous assay; 10 minutes total incubation time
No special equipment needed—uses standard vortex mixer, pipetter, 96-well microplate, plate shaker and reader (measure absorbance at 340nm or 400nm)
Sensitive—assay range (standard curve) 8 to 500 ng/mL; use sample at 15 to 300 ng/mL for optimal results
Reproducible—coefficient of variation < 5%; error depends on dilution and pipetting technique
Antibody standards sold separately—see product list for suggested products; use any antibody standard with proper target identity and known concentration (greater than 10 µg/mL)
Kits for five popular targets—choose a kit specific for a particular species and class of immunoglobulin; no cross-reaction with other species and classes of the target antibody

Easy-Titer Assay Kits detect and measure specific target antibodies using agglutination of microspheres that are coated ("sensitized") with the specific anti-IgG or IgM polyclonal antibodies. In the appropriate aqueous buffer (supplied in kit), the monodispersed antibody-coated microspheres (> 1 µM diameter) have highest absorptivity (λ-max) to incident light having a wavelength (340nm) that is equal to approximately half their diameter. When sample is added, two or more microspheres bind to each antibody target via their coated specific polyclonal antibodies, and this agglutination into effectively larger apparent spheres results in proportional decrease in absorptivity (lower absorbance).

Typical microagglutination assays depend on a change in light-scattering and corresponding change in transmittance, to which absorbance is inversely related. Easy-Titer Assay Kits use a special dilution buffer whose refractive index eliminates the effect of light-scattering on the monodispersed microspheres for the measurement wavelength used. Because of this, the final 10- to 20-fold dilution of the sample for use in the assay must be done using the Dilution Buffer supplied in the kit.

Easy-Titer Antibody Assays are faster and easier than ELISA:
• Prepare standards (5 to 500 ng/mL) by diluting purified antibody in Kit Dilution Buffer.
• Prepare samples by diluting in Dilution Buffer to within assay range (8 to 500 ng/mL).
• Vortex vial of microsphere beads to create homogeneous suspension.
• Pipette 20 µL of bead suspension and 20 µL of each sample and standard into 96-well microplate wells.
• Incubate microplate for 5 minutes with vigorous mixing.
• Add 100 µL of Kit Blocking Reagent.
• Incubate microplate for 5 minutes with vigorous mixing.
• Measure absorbance on standard plate reader (340nm or 405nm).
• Plot standard curve and interpolate samples to determine concentration.

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Easy-Titer™ Mouse IgG Assay Kit
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Pro-Detect™ Rapid DYKDDDDK-His Assay Kit (Thermo Scientific™)

The Thermo Scientific Pro-Detect Rapid DYKDDDDK-His Assay Kit is a single-use, dipstick lateral flow kit for quick, easy detection of DYKDDDDK-His double-tagged proteins in protein expression and purification systems. This lateral flow assay uses membrane-based strips coated with dye-bound conjugated antibodies specific to the DYKDDDDK-His tag to provide a visual, color readout for detection within ten minutes. This assay can be used to detect DYKDDDDK-His-tagged proteins directly from cell culture media (supernatant) or cell lysates without any special instrumentation or handling.

Features of the Pro-Detect Rapid assay kits:
Easy to adopt—lateral flow strips can be used early in and throughout expression to monitor and confirm expression of desired protein-tagged target
Simple, fast method—simply dilute sample using provided diluent and dip in the lateral flow strip for visual results within 5-10 minutes
Sensitive—detect protein tags in supernatant or cell lysate samples down to low µg/mL concentrations
Specific—assay does not cross-react with common lysis and protein preparation reagents
Reliable—results are similar to other antibody immunoassays, including western blot and ELISA
Long shelf life—stable for at least one year at 4°C

Each Pro-Detect Rapid assay is performed by simply adding a properly diluted tissue culture supernatant, lysate, or purified protein sample to a test tube or microplate well and dipping in a lateral flow strip. Gold-conjugated detection antibodies embedded in the strip form complexes with the tagged protein in the sample. These complexes travel the length of the strip membrane and bind at the test and control lines. Results are displayed as red bands.

Pierce™ Biotinylated Protein Interaction Pull-Down Kit (Thermo Scientific™)

The Thermo Scientific Pierce Biotinylated Protein Interaction Pull-Down Kit contains the necessary components to capture and purify interactors of a biotin-labeled protein or ligand.

Features of the Biotinylated Protein Interaction Pull-Down Kit:

• Provides a complete, affordable and easy-to-use strategy for discoverying protein:protein interactions
• Uses common laboratory equipment and reagents (e.g., microcentrifuges, mini-gels, protein stains)
• Adaptable to single- or multiple-sample demands
• Flexible pull-down format uses spin cups for easy and efficient manipulation of streptavidin agarose beads

You provide the biotinylated protein as the "bait" (see

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tRNA for LightShift™ Chemiluminescent RNA EMSA Kit (Thermo Scientific™)

tRNA, formulation: Transfer RNA at 10 mg/mL in 10mM HEPES.
Sufficient For: 100 binding reactions

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Pro-Detect™ Rapid Myc Competitive Assay Kit (Thermo Scientific™)

The Thermo Scientific Pro-Detect Rapid Myc Competitive Assay Kit is a single-use, dipstick lateral flow kit for quick, easy detection of Myc (sequence: EQKLISEEDL)-tagged proteins in protein expression and purification systems. This lateral flow assay uses membrane-based strips coated with dye-bound conjugated antibodies specific to Myc tag to provide a qualitative detection within ten minutes. This assay can be used to detect Myc-tagged proteins directly from cell culture media (supernatant) or cell lysates without any special instrumentation or handling.

Features of the Pro-Detect Rapid competitive assay kits:
Easy to adopt—lateral flow strips can be used early in and throughout expression to monitor and confirm expression of desired protein-tagged target
Simple, fast method—simply dilute sample using provided diluent and dip in the lateral flow strip for qualitative results within 5-10 minutes
Sensitive—detect protein tags in supernatant or cell lysate samples down to low µg/mL concentrations
Specific—assay does not cross-react with common lysis and protein preparation reagents
Reliable—results are similar to other antibody immunoassays, including western blot and ELISA
Long shelf life—stable for at least one year at 4°C

Each Pro-Detect Rapid competitive assay is performed by simply adding a properly diluted tissue culture supernatant, lysate, or purified protein sample to a test tube or microplate well and dipping in a lateral flow strip. Gold-conjugated detection antibodies embedded in the strip form complexes with the tagged protein in the sample. In the presence of target protein tag, the dye-bound conjugated antibodies will bind to the tagged protein present in the sample instead of the protein tag bound at the test lines. Therefore, in a positive result, a competitive lateral flow assay will show decreasing intensity of the visible test lines until all test lines have disappeared. When there is no target protein tag present, the dye-bound conjugated antibodies specific to the target will bind at the test line(s), resulting in visual test lines in a negative result.