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Filmtracer™ LIVE/DEAD™ Biofilm Viability Kit (Invitrogen™)
The FilmTracer™ LIVE⁄DEAD Biofilm Viability kit provides a two-color fluorescence assay of bacterial viability, based on membrane integrity, that has proven usefule for a diverse array of bacterial genera including those growing in biofilm communities. The LIVE⁄DEAD Biofilm Viability kit utilizes mixtures of our SYTO® 9 green fluorescent nucleic acid stain and the red-fluorescent nucleic acid stain, propidium iodide. These stains differ both in their spectral characteristics and in their ability to penetrate healthy bacterial cells. When used alone, the SYTO® 9 stain generally labels all bacteria in a population—those with intact membranes and those with damaged membranes. In contrast, propidium iodide penetrates only bacteria with damaged membranes, causing a rduction in the SYTO® 9 stain fluorescence with both dyes are present. Thus, with an appropriate mixture of the SYTO™ 9 and propdium iodide stains, bacteria with intact cell membranes stain fluorescent green, whereas bacteria with damaged membranes stain fluorescent red.
FilmTracer™ SYPRO™ Ruby Biofilm Matrix Stain (Invitrogen™)
F10318 FilmTracer™ SYPRO® Ruby biofilm matrix stain has been used to stain matrices of biofilms. This stain was originally used as a gel stain that labels most classes of proteins, including glycoproteins, phosphoproteins, lipoproteins, calcium binding proteins, fibrillar proteins and other proteins that are difficult to stain. FilmTracer™ SYPRO® Ruby biofilm stain comes in a convenient, ready to use 1X concentration.
FilmTracer™ FM™ 1-43 Green Biofilm Cell Stain (Invitrogen™)
FM dyes are lipophilic styryl compounds used in a wide variety of studies involving plasma membrane and vesiculation. The water-soluble FM® dyes are virtually nonfluorescent in aqueous media and are believed to insert into the surface membrane where they become intensely fluorescent. FM® 1-43 stain has been used successfully to stain the cell bodies specifically in a complex biofilm mileu, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus sp., Acidothiobacillus caldus, and Vibrio cholerae.