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PED6 (N-((6-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl)amino)hexanoyl)-2-(4,4-Difluoro-5,7-Dimethyl-4-Bora-3a,4a-Diaza-s-Indacene-3-Pentanoyl)-1-Hexadecanoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphoethanolamine, Triethylammonium Salt) (Invitrogen™)

Molecular Probes® phospholipase substrates are dye labeled phospholipids used to monitor phospholipase A (PLA) activity in purified enzyme preparations, cell lysates, and living cells. Two structural variations of these substrates are available, which confer specificity for PLA1 and PLA2. Fluorescently labeled versions of the cleavage product generated from these substrates are also available for use as standards for evaluating percentage substrate conversion in enzymatic reactions.

Fluorogenic Phospholipase A Substrates Specifications:
• Label (Ex/Em): PED6
• Specificity: PLA2 (this substrate is cleaved by PLA1, but this reaction does not separate the fluorophore from the quencher)
• Cleavage product: D3834
• Lyophilized product can be dissolved in DMSO for use
• Fluorescence is measured either in microplate assays or using flow cytometry


Find More Probes for Lipid Metabolism and Fatty Acid Analogs
Review Fatty Acid Analogs and Phospholipids—Section 13.2 and Probes for Lipid Metabolism and Signaling—Section 17.4 in the Molecular Probes® Handbook for more information on these products.

For Research Use. Not for human or animal therapeutic or diagnostic use.

CholEsteryl 4,4-Difluoro-5-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-4-Bora-3a,4a-Diaza-s-Indacene-3-Undecanoate (CholEsteryl BODIPY™ 542/563 C11) (Invitrogen™)

Cholesteryl esters consist of a fatty acid esterified to the 3β-hydroxyl group of cholesterol. These very nonpolar species are the predominant lipid components of atherosclerosis plaque and low- and high-density lipoporotein (LDL and HDL) cores. The orange-red fluorescent BODIPY® 542/563 cholesteryl ester can be used as a tracer of cholesterol transport and rand as a general nonexchangeable membrane marker.

Biotin DHPE (N-(Biotinoyl)-1,2-Dihexadecanoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphoethanolamine, Triethylammonium Salt) (Invitrogen™)

The biotinylated phospholipid, biotin DHPE can be used to couple avidin or streptavidin to cell membranes, liposomes and lipoid monolayers.

BODIPY™ FL C5 (4,4-Difluoro-5,7-Dimethyl-4-Bora-3a,4a-Diaza-s-Indacene-3-Pentanoic Acid) (Invitrogen™)

The green fluorescent fatty acid, BODIPY® FL C5 can be used as a synthetic precursor to a wide variety of fluorescent phospholipids. Unlike fluorophores like pyrene, DPH and NBD, BODIPY® dyes are relatively environment insensitive and is fluorescent in both aqueous and lipid environments.

Texas Red™ 1,2-Dihexadecanoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphoethanolamine, Triethylammonium Salt (Texas Red™ DHPE) (Invitrogen™)

The phospholipid, Texas Red® 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, triethylammonium salt (Texas Red® DHPE) is labeled on the head group with the bright, red-fluorescent Texas Red® dye (excitation/emission maxima ~595/615 nm).

BODIPY™ 558/568 C12 (4,4-Difluoro-5-(2-Thienyl)-4-Bora-3a,4a-Diaza-s-Indacene-3-Dodecanoic Acid) (Invitrogen™)

The orange-red fluorescent fatty acid, BODIPY® 558/568 C12 can be used as a synthetic precursor to a wide variety of fluorescent phospholipids. Unlike fluorophores like pyrene, DPH and NBD, BODIPY® dyes are relatively environment insensitive and is fluorescent in both aqueous and lipid environments.

5-Dodecanoylaminofluorescein (Invitrogen™)

The lipophilic fluorescein probe, 5-dodecanoylaminofluorescein contains a C12 alkyl chain that will bind to membranes with the fluorophore at the aqueous interface and the alkyl tail protruding into the lipid interior. Lipophilic fluorescein probes are commonly utilized for fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) measurements of lipid lateral diffusion.

NBD Cholesterol (22-(N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-Oxa-1,3-Diazol-4-yl)Amino)-23,24-Bisnor-5-Cholen-3β-Ol) (Invitrogen™)

This fluorescent analog, NBD cholesterol, is an environment-sensitive probe that localizes in the membrane's interior and is useful for investigating lipid transport processes as well lipid-protein interactions.

BODIPY™ 493/503 (4,4-Difluoro-1,3,5,7,8-Pentamethyl-4-Bora-3a,4a-Diaza-s-Indacene) (Invitrogen™)

With its nonpolar structure and long-wavelength absorption and fluorescence, BODIPY® 493/503 can be used as a stain for neutral lipds and as a tracer for oil and other nonpolar lipids.

BODIPY™ 500/510 C4, C9 (5-Butyl-4,4-Difluoro-4-Bora-3a,4a-Diaza-s-Indacene-3-Nonanoic Acid) (Invitrogen™)

The green-fluorescent fatty acid BODIPY® 500/510 C4, C9 has the fluorophore linked within the fatty acid chain. BODIPY® fatty acids are readily metabolized by living cells to phospholipids, di- and triacylglycerols, cholesteryl esters and other natural lipids.

BODIPY™ TR Ceramide (Invitrogen™)

BODIPY TR ceramide is a red-fluorescent dye that can be used to stain Golgi apparatus in live cells.

Biotin-X DHPE (N-((6-(Biotinoyl)amino)hexanoyl)-1,2-Dihexadecanoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphoethanolamine, Triethylammonium Salt) (Invitrogen™)

The biotinylated phospholipid, biotin-X DHPE can be used to couple avidin or streptavidin to cell membranes, liposomes and lipoid monolayers.

CholEsteryl 4,4-Difluoro-5,7-Dimethyl-4-Bora-3a,4a-Diaza-s-Indacene-3-Dodecanoate (CholEsteryl BODIPY™ FL C12) (Invitrogen™)

Cholesteryl esters consist of a fatty acid esterified to the 3β-hydroxyl group of cholesterol. These very nonpolar species are the predominant lipid components of atherosclerosis plaque and low- and high-density lipoporotein (LDL and HDL) cores. The green fluorescent BODIPY® FL C12 cholesteryl ester can be used as a tracer of cholesterol transport and receptor-mediated endocytosis of lipoproteins by fluorescence microscopy and as a general nonexchangeable membrane marker.

NBD C6-Ceramide Complexed to BSA (Invitrogen™)

NBD C6-ceramide can be used to study sphingolipid transport and metabolism mechanisms. It is also used as a selective stain for the Golgi apparatus in live and fixed cells. Complexing fluorescent lipids with bovine serum albuin (BSA) facilitates cell labeling by eliminating the need for organic solvents to dissolve the lipophilic probe - the BSA-complexed probe can be directly dissolved in water. The environment sensitive NBD dye is weakly fluorescent in water but increases in aprotic solvents and other nonpolar environments with excitation/emission maxima ~466/536 nm.

BODIPY™ FL C5-Sphingomyelin (N-(4,4-Difluoro-5,7-Dimethyl-4-Bora-3a,4a-Diaza-s-Indacene-3-Pentanoyl)Sphingosyl Phosphocholine) (Invitrogen™)

BODIPY® FL C5 sphingomyelin can be used in sphingolipid transport and metabolism studies.