Shop All Cellular Structure Probes

Bis-ANS (4,4'-Dianilino-1,1'-Binaphthyl-5,5'-Disulfonic Acid, Dipotassium Salt) (Invitrogen™)

Bis-ANS is superior to 1-8-ANS as a probe for nonpolar cavities in proteins, often binding with an affinity that is orders-of-magnitude higher. Anilinonaphthalene sulfonates (ANS) are essentially nonfluorescent in water, only becoming appreciably fluorescent when bound to membranes. This property makes it a sensitive indicator of protein folding, conformational changes and other processes that modify the exposure of the probe to water.

Rhodamine Phalloidin (Invitrogen™)

Rhodamine phalloidin is a high-affinity F-actin probe conjugated to the red-orange fluorescent dye, tetramethylrhodamine (TRITC).

Selectively stains F-actin
Excitiation/Emission: 540/565 nm
Superior to antibody staining
Optimal for fixed and permeabilized samples
Very widely cited fluorescent phalloidin conjugate

Get Superior Results in Actin Staining Studies
Phalloidin is a bicyclic peptide belonging to a family of toxins isolated from the deadly Amanita phalloides "death cap" mushroom and is commonly used in imaging applications to selectively label F-actin. Fluorescently-labeled phalloidin has virtually identical binding properties with actin from different species including plants and animals. Phalloidin binds F-actin with high selectivity while TRITC provides red-orange fluorescence of unparalleled brightness and photostability. Demonstrating very little nonspecific staining, Rhodamine phalloidin allows high-contrast discrimination of actin staining. Rhodamine phalloidin is one of the most commonly used fluorescent phalloidin conjugates in the literature, as evidenced by over 1,500 citations (maintained in our in-house database).

Use in Multiple Applications
Rhodamine phalloidin can be used to visualize and quantitate F-actin in tissue sections, cell cultures, or cell-free preparations. Rhodamine phalloidin staining is fully compatible with other fluorescent stains used in cellular analyses including fluorescent proteins, Qdot® nanocrystals, and Alexa Fluor® conjugates including secondary antibodies. For research use only.

Not intended for human or animal therapeutic or diagnostic use.

Related Links
Read about labeling F-Actin with phallotoxins.
Create a Cellular Masterpiece with Alexa Fluor® Phalloidin using the Cell Paint Tool.

Oregon Green™ 488 Phalloidin (Invitrogen™)

Oregon Green® 448 phalloidin is a high-affinity F-actin probe conjugated to green fluorescent Oregon Green® 488 dye.

Selectively stains F-actin
Outstanding fluorescence performance
Excitation/Emission: 496/520 nm
Superior to antibody staining
Optimal for fixed and permeabilized samples
pH insensitive under physiological conditions

Get Superior Results in Actin Staining Studies
Phalloidin is a bicyclic peptide belonging to a family of toxins isolated from the deadly Amanita phalloides "death cap" mushroom and is commonly used in imaging applications to selectively label F-actin. Fluorescently-labeled phalloidin has virtually identical binding properties with actin from different species including plants and animals. Phalloidin binds F-actin with high selectivity while Oregon Green® 488 provides green fluorescence with brightness superior to fluorescein. Oregon Green® 488 is a fluorinated analog of fluorescein with greater photostability and a lower pKa, making its fluorescence essentially pH insensitive in the physiological pH range. Demonstrating very little nonspecific staining, Oregon Green® 488 phalloidin allows high-contrast discrimination of actin staining.

Use in Multiple Applications
Oregon Green® 448 phalloidin can be used to visualize and quantitate F-actin in tissue sections, cell cultures, or cell-free preparations. Oregon Green® 448 phalloidin staining is fully compatible with other fluorescent stains used in cellular analyses including fluorescent proteins, Qdot® nanocrystals, and Alexa Fluor® conjugates including secondary antibodies.

For research use only. Not intended for human or animal therapeutic or diagnostic use.

Related Links
Read about labeling F-Actin with phallotoxins.
Create a Cellular Masterpiece with Alexa Fluor® Phalloidin using the Cell Paint Tool.

MitoProbe™ Transition Pore Assay Kit, for flow cytometry (Invitrogen™)

The MitoProbe™ Transition Pore Assay Kit provides a proven method (Petronilli V. et al. 1989, 1999) of measuring mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. The kit includes a dye and a quencher that are easily loaded into cells. In healthy cells, the dye, but not the quencher, enters mitochondria. The mitochondria remain brightly fluorescent until mitochondrial pore activation permits quenching of the fluorescence.

View a selection guide for all apoptosis assays for flow cytometry.

Tubulin Tracker™ Variety Pack (Invitrogen™)

The Tubulin Tracker Variety Pack is a kit containing Tubulin Tracker Green and Tubulin Tracker Deep Red, which provide green and deep-red fluorescence, respectively, when bound to polymerized tubulin in live cells. Tubulin Tracker Green provides fluorescence with excitation maxima of 494 nm and emission maxima of 522 nm and can be detected with standard FITC/GFP filter settings using a fluorescence microscope. Tubulin Tracker Deep Red provides fluorescence with excitation maxima of 652 nm and emission maxima of 669 nm and can be detected using standard Cy5 filter settings.

ActinGreen™ 488 ReadyProbes™ Reagent (Invitrogen™)

ActinGreen 488 ReadyProbes Reagent is a selective, high-affinity F-actin probe (phalloidin) conjugated to our bright, photostable, green-fluorescent Alexa Fluor 488 dye. ActinGreen 488 reagent is formulated as a room temperature-stable solution of Alexa Fluor 488 Phalloidin (Cat. No. A12379) and comes in a convenient dropper bottle. Just tip and drip two drops per ml to stain your cells.

• High-affinity staining of F-actin with superior specificity compared to antibody methods
• Outstanding fluorescence performance (Ex/Em: 495/518 nm)
• Ready-to-use liquid formulation in convenient dropper bottle—no need to dilute, weigh, or pipette
• Stability at room temperature—keep handy at your scope or cell culture area

See other ReadyProbes reagents for cell staining
Learn more about other stains for actin

Cell imaging applications
Phalloidin is a bi-cyclic peptide, commonly used in imaging applications to selectively label F-actin. Fluorescently-labeled phalloidin has several advantages over antibodies for actin labeling, including virtually identical binding properties with actin from different species of plants and animals, and low non-specific binding. Phalloidin binds F-actin with high selectivity, while Alexa Fluor 488 dye provides green fluorescence of unparalleled brightness and photostability.

Suggestions for use
• ActinGreen 488 reagent may be added directly to fixed cells in full media or buffer solutions.
• In most cases, 2 drops/ml and an incubation time of 15 to 30 minutes is sufficient for bright actin staining; however, optimization may be needed for some cell types, conditions, and applications. In such cases, simply add more or fewer drops until the optimal staining intensity is obtained.
• ActinGreen 488 dye is excited with a maximum at 495 nm and has an emission maximum at 518 nm. It is detected through standard GFP and FITC filters.

Octadecyl Rhodamine B Chloride (R18) (Invitrogen™)

The lipophilic octadecyl rhodamine B binds to membranes with the fluorophore at the aqueous interface and the alkyl tail protruding into the lipid interior.

CellLight™ Plasma Membrane-GFP, BacMam 2.0 (Invitrogen™)

CellLight® Plasma Membrane-GFP, BacMam 2.0, provides an easy way to label the plasma membrane with green fluorescent protein (GFP) in live cells. Simply add the reagent to your cells, incubate overnight, and the cells are ready to image in the morning.

Want to label other cell structures? Learn more about CellLight® fluorescent protein labeling tools

This ready-to-use construct is transfected into cells using BacMam 2.0 technology, where it expresses GFP fused to the myristolyation/palmitoylation sequence from Lck tyrosine kinase. You can observe plasma membrane-GFP behavior in live cells without staining internal membranes, and also use multiple tracking or tracing dyes to image dynamic cellular processes.

Cells expressing CellLight® constructs can also be fixed with formaldehyde for multiplexed imaging using immunocytochemical techniques.

CellLight® Technology is:
Fast and convenient: simply add CellLight® reagent to your cells, incubate overnight, and image—or store frozen, assay-ready cells for later use
Highly efficient: up to 90% transduction of a wide range of mammalian cell lines, including primary cells, stem cells, and neurons
Flexible: co-transduce more than one BacMam reagent for multiplex experiments or co-localization studies; tightly control expression levels by simply varying the dose
Less toxic: CellLight® reagents are non-replicating in mammalian cells and are suitable for biosafety level (BSL) 1 handling

BacMam Technology
CellLight® Plasma Membrane-GFP, BacMam 2.0, is a fusion construct of the myristolyation/palmitoylation sequence from Lck tyrosine kinase and emGFP, providing accurate and specific targeting to cellular Plasma Membrane-GFP. This fusion construct is packaged in the insect virus baculovirus, which does not replicate in human cells and is designated as safe to use with biosafety level (BSL) 1 in most laboratories. BacMam technology ensures that most mammalian cell types are transduced/transfected with high efficiency and minimal toxicity. This transient transfection can be detected after overnight incubation for up to five days—enough time to carry out most dynamic cellular analyses. Like any transfection/transduction technique, the BacMam method does not transfect/transduce all of the cells with equal efficiency, making it poorly suited to cellular population studies or automated imaging/counting. CellLight® reagents are ideal for experiments where cellular or subcellular co-locatization is required, or for cellular function studies that need special resolution.

MitoProbe™ JC-1 Assay Kit (Invitrogen™)

The MitoProbe™ JC-1 Assay Kit is a quick and reliable assay used to detect changes in mitochondria by flow cytometry.

View a selection guide for all apoptosis assays for flow cytometry.

Selective to mitochondrial changes
The membrane-permeant JC-1 dye is widely used in apoptosis studies to monitor mitochondrial health. JC-1 dye exhibits potential-dependent accumulation in mitochondria, indicated by a fluorescence emission shift from green (~529 nm) to red (~590 nm). Consequently, mitochondrial depolarization is indicated by a decrease in the red/green fluorescence intensity ratio. The potential-sensitive color shift is due to concentration-dependent formation of red fluorescent J-aggregates.

Unlike other mitochondrial stains that are affected by plasma membrane potential, the ratio of green to red fluorescence of JC-1 depends only on the membrane potential and not other factors such as mitochondrial size, shape, and density, which may influence single-component fluorescence signals. Use of fluorescence ratio detection allows researchers to make comparative measurements of membrane potential and determine the percentage of mitochondria within a population that respond to an applied stimulus.

Indicator of early apoptosis
A distinctive feature of the early stages of programmed cell death is the disruption of active mitochondria. This mitochondrial disruption includes changes in the membrane potential and alterations to the oxidation-reduction potential of the mitochondria. Changes in the membrane potential are presumed to be due to the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), allowing passage of ions and small molecules. The resulting equilibration of ions leads in turn to the decoupling of the respiratory chain and the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol.

Simple, streamlined protocol
One of the biggest challenges to working with dual-emitting dyes like JC-1 is compensation. The MitoProbe™ JC-1 Assay Kit provides a mitochondrial membrane-potential disrupter, CCCP, in order to produce compensation controls leading to a correctly compensated green-to-red fluorescence ratio. The stain protocol is simple and straightforward: incubate the cells with JC-1 dye and then analyze the fluorescent signal in the FITC and PE channels of of a 488 nm laser.

CellLight™ Plasma Membrane-CFP, BacMam 2.0 (Invitrogen™)

CellLight® Plasma Membrane-CFP, BacMam 2.0, provides an easy way to label the plasma membrane with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) in live cells. Simply add the reagent to your cells, incubate overnight, and the cells are ready to image in the morning.

Want to label other cell structures? Learn more about CellLight® fluorescent protein labeling tools

This ready-to-use construct is transfected into cells using BacMam 2.0 technology, where it expresses CFP fused to the myristolyation/palmitoylation sequence from Lck tyrosine kinase. You can observe plasma membrane-CFP behavior in live cells without staining internal membranes, and also use multiple tracking or tracing dyes to image dynamic cellular processes.

Cells expressing CellLight® constructs can also be fixed with formaldehyde for multiplexed imaging using immunocytochemical techniques.

CellLight® Technology is:
Fast and convenient: simply add CellLight® reagent to your cells, incubate overnight, and image—or store frozen, assay-ready cells for later use
Highly efficient: up to 90% transduction of a wide range of mammalian cell lines, including primary cells, stem cells, and neurons
Flexible: co-transduce more than one BacMam reagent for multiplex experiments or co-localization studies; tightly control expression levels by simply varying the dose
Less toxic: CellLight® reagents are non-replicating in mammalian cells and are suitable for biosafety level (BSL) 1 handling

BacMam Technology
CellLight® Plasma Membrane-CFP, BacMam 2.0, is a fusion construct of the myristolyation/palmitoylation sequence from Lck tyrosine kinase and CFP, providing accurate and specific targeting to cellular plasma membrane-CFP. This fusion construct is packaged in the insect virus baculovirus, which does not replicate in human cells and is designated as safe to use with biosafety level (BSL) 1 in most laboratories. BacMam technology ensures that most mammalian cell types are transduced/transfected with high efficiency and minimal toxicity. This transient transfection can be detected after overnight incubation for up to five days—enough time to carry out most dynamic cellular analyses. Like any transfection/transduction technique, the BacMam method does not transfect/transduce all of the cells with equal efficiency, making it poorly suited to cellular population studies or automated imaging/counting. CellLight® reagents are ideal for experiments where cellular or subcellular co-locatization is required, or for cellular function studies that need special resolution.

Deoxyribonuclease I, Alexa Fluor™ 594 Conjugate (Invitrogen™)

The bright red fluorescent Alexa Fluor® 594 DNase I selectively binds to G-actin (globular) and can be used for the detection of unpolymerized actin in fixed cells.

Alexa Fluor™ 555 Phalloidin (Invitrogen™)

Alexa Fluor® 555 phalloidin is a high-affinity F-actin probe conjugated to our bright, photostable, red-orange fluorescent Alexa Fluor® 555 dye.

Selectively stains F-actin
Outstanding fluorescence performance
Excitation/Emission: 555/565 nm
Superior to antibody staining
Optimal for fixed and permeabilized samples

Get Superior Results in Actin Staining Studies
Phalloidin is a bicyclic peptide belonging to a family of toxins isolated from the deadly Amanita phalloides "death cap" mushroom and is commonly used in imaging applications to selectively label F-actin. Fluorescently-labeled phalloidin has virtually identical binding properties with actin from different species including plants and animals. Phalloidin binds F-actin with high selectivity while Alexa Fluor® 555 provides red-orange fluorescence of unparalleled brightness and photostability. Demonstrating very little nonspecific staining, Alexa Fluor® 555 phalloidin allows high-contrast discrimination of actin staining.

Use in Multiple Applications
Alexa Fluor® 555 phalloidin can be used to visualize and quantitate F-actin in tissue sections, cell cultures, or cell-free preparations. Alexa Fluor® 555 phalloidin staining is fully compatible with other fluorescent stains used in cellular analyses including fluorescent proteins, Qdot® nanocrystals, and other Alexa Fluor® conjugates including secondary antibodies.

For research use only. Not intended for human or animal therapeutic or diagnostic use.

Related Links
Read about labeling F-Actin with phallotoxins.
See the full line of Alexa Fluor® Dye products.
Create a Cellular Masterpiece with Alexa Fluor® Phalloidin using the Cell Paint Tool.

Alexa Fluor™ 594 Phalloidin (Invitrogen™)

Alexa Fluor® 594 phalloidin is a high-affinity F-actin probe conjugated to our bright, photostable, red fluorescent Alexa Fluor® 594 dye.

Selectively stains F-actin
Outstanding fluorescence performance
Excitation/Emission: 581/609 nm
Superior to antibody staining
Optimal for fixed and permeabilized samples

Get Superior Results in Actin Staining Studies
Phalloidin is a bicyclic peptide belonging to a family of toxins isolated from the deadly Amanita phalloides "death cap" mushroom and is commonly used in imaging applications to selectively label F-actin. Fluorescently-labeled phalloidin has virtually identical binding properties with actin from different species including plants and animals. Phalloidin binds F-actin with high selectivity while Alexa Fluor® 594 provides red fluorescence of unparalleled brightness and photostability. Demonstrating very little nonspecific staining, Alexa Fluor 594® phalloidin allows high-contrast discrimination of actin staining.

Use in Multiple Applications
Alexa Fluor® 594 phalloidin can be used to visualize and quantitate F-actin in tissue sections, cell cultures, or cell-free preparations. Alexa Fluor® 594 phalloidin staining is fully compatible with other fluorescent stains used in cellular analyses including fluorescent proteins, Qdot® nanocrystals, and other Alexa Fluor® conjugates including secondary antibodies.

For research use only. Not intended for human or animal therapeutic or diagnostic use.

Related Links
Read about labeling F-Actin with phallotoxins.
See the full line of Alexa Fluor® Dye products.
Create a Cellular Masterpiece with Alexa Fluor® Phalloidin using the Cell Paint Tool.

Deoxyribonuclease I, Alexa Fluor™ 488 Conjugate (Invitrogen™)

The bright green fluorescent Alexa Fluor® 488 DNase I selectively binds to G-actin (globular) and can be used for the detection of unpolymerized actin in fixed cells.

Alexa Fluor™ 635 Phalloidin (Invitrogen™)

Alexa Fluor® 635 phalloidin is a high-affinity F-actin probe conjugated to our bright, photostable, far-red fluorescent Alexa Fluor® 635 dye.

Selectively stains F-actin
Outstanding fluorescence performance
Excitation/Emission: 633/647 nm
Superior to antibody staining
Optimal for fixed and permeabilized samples

Get Superior Results in Actin Staining Studies
Phalloidin is a bicyclic peptide belonging to a family of toxins isolated from the deadly Amanita phalloides "death cap" mushroom and is commonly used in imaging applications to selectively label F-actin. Fluorescently-labeled phalloidin has virtually identical binding properties with actin from different species including plants and animals. Phalloidin binds F-actin with high selectivity while Alexa Fluor® 635 provides far-red fluorescence of unparalleled brightness and photostability. Demonstrating very little nonspecific staining, Alexa Fluor® 635 phalloidin allows high-contrast discrimination of actin staining.

Use in Multiple Applications
Alexa Fluor® 635 phalloidin can be used to visualize and quantitate F-actin in tissue sections, cell cultures, or cell-free preparations. Alexa Fluor® 635 phalloidin staining is fully compatible with other fluorescent stains used in cellular analyses including fluorescent proteins, Qdot® nanocrystals, and other Alexa Fluor® conjugates including secondary antibodies.

For research use only. Not intended for human or animal therapeutic or diagnostic use.

Related Links
Read about labeling F-Actin with phallotoxins.
See the full line of Alexa Fluor® Dye products.
Create a Cellular Masterpiece with Alexa Fluor® Phalloidin using the Cell Paint Tool.