Shop All DNA⁄RNA Cell Stains

FxCycle™ Violet Ready Flow™ Reagent (Invitrogen™)

FxCycle™ Violet Ready Flow™ Reagent is a bright, easy-to-use dsDNA stain for cell cycle analysis in fixed cells using flow cytometry. It is excitable by both UV and 405 nm lasers with an emission peak at 461 nm.

• Stable at room temperature
• Convenient, ready-to-use format—no need to dilute, weigh, or pipette
• Rapid staining of DNA in fixed cells
• No RNase treatment required

FxCycle Violet Ready Flow Reagent is a ready-to-use, direct-to-sample DNA stain. Add 2 drops from the dropper bottle directly into 1 x 106 fixed cells, incubate, and analyze.

As a cell-impermeant dye, FxCycle Violet Ready Flow Reagent enters the cell after fixation and binds double-stranded DNA specifically, eliminating the need for RNase treatment. The dye can be detected when excited with a UV or 405 nm laser, and the emission captured at a peak of 461 nm. FxCycle Violet Ready Flow Reagent is an ideal choice for DNA content analysis and can be included in multi-color cell-cycle studies.

CellEvent™ Caspase 3/7 Green Ready Flow™ Reagent (Invitrogen™)

CellEvent™ Caspase-3/7 Green Ready Flow™ Reagent enables the flow cytometric detection of activated caspase-3 and caspase-7 in apoptotic cells. The product includes 2 reagents: the novel fluorogenic substrate CellEvent™ Caspase-3/7 Green Detection Reagent and SYTOX™ AADvanced™ Dead Cell Stain.

• Stable at room temperature
• Convenient, ready-to-use format—no need to dilute, weigh, or pipette
• Exceptionally bright green fluorescence upon binding to nucleic acids
• Rapid staining of apoptotic cells without wash steps

CellEvent Caspase-3/7 Green Ready Flow Reagent is a cell-permeant reagent that detects caspase 3/7 activity using flow cytometry. Add 2 drops from the dropper bottle directly into 1 x 106 cells, incubate, and analyze.

CellEvent Caspase-3/7 Green Ready Flow Reagent consists of a four-amino acid peptide (DEVD) conjugated to a nucleic acid-binding dye. During apoptosis, caspase-3 and caspase-7 proteins are activated and able to cleave the caspase 3/7 recognition sequence encoded in the DEVD peptide. Cleavage of the recognition sequence and binding of DNA by the reagent labels the apoptotic cells with a bright, fluorescent signal having absorption/emission maxima of ~502/530 nm. When used together with the SYTOX AADvanced Dead Cell Stain, apoptotic cells can be easily discriminated from live and necrotic cells.

Because no single parameter defines apoptosis in all systems, we strongly suggest using a combination of different measurements for reliable detection of apoptosis. For more information, see Apoptosis Reagents in Flow Cytometry.

SYTOX™ Green Ready Flow™ Reagent (Invitrogen™)

SYTOX™ Green Ready Flow™ Reagent is a bright, easy-to-use nucleic acid stain for distinguishing dead cells from live cells in flow cytometry assays. It is excitable at 488 nm with an emission profile similar to FITC, and has been tested in multiple cell lines.

• Stable at room temperature
• Convenient, ready-to-use format—no need to dilute, weigh, or pipette
• Exceptionally bright green fluorescence upon binding to nucleic acids
• Rapid staining without wash steps

SYTOX Green Ready Flow Reagent is a ready-to-use, direct-to-sample dead cell stain. Add 2 drops from the dropper bottle directly into 1 x 106 cells, incubate, and analyze.

As a cell-impermeant dye, SYTOX Green enters the cell upon loss of membrane integrity and binds to DNA, thereby acting as a counterstain that can be analyzed when excited at 488 nm and the emission captured at a peak of 523 nm. SYTOX Green reagent can be used in both mammalian and bacterial cells and is often included in multiplex assays.

Propidium Iodide Ready Flow™ Reagent (Invitrogen™)

Propidium Iodide Ready Flow™ Reagent is a bright, easy-to-use nucleic acid stain for distinguishing dead cells from live cells in flow cytometry assays. This dye has excitation/emission maxima of 535/617 nm.

• Stable at room temperature
• Convenient, ready-to-use format—no need to dilute, weigh. or pipette
• Rapid staining of dead cells without wash steps

Propidium Iodide Ready Flow Reagent is a commonly used dead-cell stain that emits red fluorescence when bound to DNA. Add 2 drops from the dropper bottle directly into 1 x 106 cells, incubate, and analyze.

Propidium iodide is membrane impermeant and therefore excluded from viable cells. It binds to DNA by intercalating between the bases, thereby binding both DNA and RNA. Propidium iodide is commonly excited with the 488 nm laser, but others such as the 532 and 561 nm lasers are also suited for PI excitation.

POPO™-1 Iodide (434/456) - 1 mM Solution in DMSO (Invitrogen™)

POPO™-1 iodide is a high-affinity nucleic acid stain based upon a symmetric cyanine dye dimer that is essentially nonfluorescent in the absence of nucleic acids that exhibits excitation/emission maxima ~434/456 nm when bound to nucleic acids.

NucBlue™ Live ReadyProbes™ Reagent (Invitrogen™)

Hoechst 33342 is a popular cell-permeant nuclear counterstain that emits blue fluorescence when bound to DNA. With NucBlue® Live ReadyProbes® Reagent we have formulated this classic stain in a room temperature-stable solution that is provided in a convenient-to-use dropper bottle. Just tip and drip two drops per ml to stain your cells.

• No need to dilute, weigh, or pipette
• Convenient dropper bottle—just use two drops per mL
• Stable at room temperature—keep handy at your scope or cell culture area
• Excited by UV light and emits blue fluorescence at 460 nm when bound to DNA nm

See other ReadyProbes® reagents for cell staining
See other nuclear stains for imaging

Cell imaging applications
The spectral properties of Hoechst 33342 (2'-[4-ethoxyphenyl]-5-[4-methyl-1-piperazinyl]-2,5'-bi-1H-benzimidazole), including a large Stokes shift, make it ideal for use with green (Alexa Fluor® 488, FITC, GFP) and red (Alexa Fluor® 594, Texas Red®, rhodamine, mCherry, mKate-2) fluorophores in multicolor experiments. Because of its high affinity to DNA, Hoechst 33342 is also frequently used in cell counting, cell cycle, and cell replication studies to distinguish condensed nuclei in apoptotic cells, for cell-cycle studies in combination with Click-iT® EdU or BrdU staining, as a nuclear segmentation tool in high content imaging analysis, and to sort cells based on their DNA content..

Suggestions for use
NucBlue® Live Cell Stain may be added directly to cells in full media, or buffer solutions.
• In most cases 2 drops/ml and an incubation of 15 to 30 minutes will give bright nuclear staining; however, optimization may be needed for some cell types, conditions, and applications. In such cases simply add more, or fewer, drops until the optimal staining intensity is obtained. In most cases, staining intensity increases with time if cells are not washed prior to imaging.
• NucBlue® Live Cell Stain is excited by UV light at 360 nm when bound to DNA, with an emission maximum at 460 nm. It is detected through a blue/cyan filter, such as a DAPI filter, blue GFP filters, or the Semrock BrightLine® Alexa Fluor® 350 Dye filter set.

TO-PRO™3 Ready Flow™ Reagent (Invitrogen™)

TO-PRO™3 Ready Flow™ Reagent is a bright and easy-to-use nucleic acid stain for distinguishing dead cells from live cells in flow cytometry assays. This dye has excitation/emission maxima of 642/661 nm, similar to Alexa Fluor™ 647 or allophycocyanin (APC).

• Stable at room temperature
• Convenient, ready-to-use format—no need to dilute, weigh, or pipette
• Rapid staining of dead cells without wash steps

TO-PRO 3 Ready Flow Reagent is a ready-to-use, direct-to-sample dead-cell stain that emits red fluorescence when bound to DNA. Add 2 drops form the dropper bottle directly into 1 x 106 cells, incubate, and analyze.

TO-PRO 3 Ready Flow Reagent is membrane impermeant and therefore excluded from viable cells. It binds selectively to double-stranded DNA. This dye has excitation/emission maxima of 642/661 nm.

Acridine Orange (10 mg/mL in water) (Invitrogen™)

Acridine Orange is a cell-permeant nucleic acid binding dye that emits green fluorescence when bound to dsDNA and red fluorescence when bound to ssDNA or RNA. This unique characteristic makes acridine orange useful for cell-cycle studies. Acridine orange has also been used as a lysosomal dye.

SYTOX™ Blue Nucleic Acid Stain - 5 mM Solution in DMSO (Invitrogen™)

SYTOX® Blue nucleic acid stain is an excellent blue-fluorescent nuclear and chromosome counterstain that is impermeant to live cells, making it a useful indicator of dead cells within a population. The excitation/emission maxima for the dye bound to DNA are 444/480 nm.

PO-PRO™-1 Iodide (435/455) - 1 mM Solution in DMSO (Invitrogen™)

One of our carbocyanine monomers, PO-PRO™-1 stain is a useful counterstain and dead cell indicator, with blue fluorescence (excitation/emission maxima ~435/455 nm).

Vybrant™ DyeCycle™ Violet Stain (Invitrogen™)

Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet Stain is a cell permeable DNA dye that can be used for cell cycle analysis and stem cell side population by flow cytometry.

• Precise—accurate cell cycle analysis in living cells

• Safe—low cytotoxicity for cell sorting and additional live cell experiments

• Minimal compensation—easier multiplexing

• Flexible

• Simple, robust staining protocol

View a selection guide for all products related to cell cycle analysis of fixed and live cells in flow cytometry.

Precise

Successful cell cycle analysis requires a dye that is DNA selective and can stain cells in a homogeneous pattern minimizing fluorescence variability. The Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet Stain is an ideal tool for DNA content analysis in living cells since the stain is cell permeable and, after binding double-stranded DNA, emits a fluorescent signal that is proportional to the DNA mass (see figure).

Low Cytotoxicity

Unlike stains that require high concentrations or have chemical structures that are toxic to cells, Vybrant® DyeCycle™ stains exhibit relatively low cytotoxicity, allowing the possibility of sorting based on the phase of the cell cycle.

Minimal Compensation

Well-suited for the popular violet laser line, the Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet Stain/DNA complex has fluorescence excitation and emission maxima of 369/437 nm, respectively (see figure).

The violet excitation and narrow emission of Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet Stain make it ideal for multiplexing due to the limited spectral overlap with other common dyes (Alexa Fluor® 488, FITC, and RPE) and fluorescent proteins (Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and mCherry) . Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet Stain can also be used with UV excitation, having emission at ~440 nm.

Flexible

Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet Stain has been shown to not only work for both live cells and fixed cells in cell cycle assays, but to identify stem cell side populations and early progenitors in mammalian hematopoietic tissues (see figure).

Simple, Robust Staining Protocol

For cell analysis, simply prepare flow cytometry tubes each containing 1 mL of cells suspended in complete media at a cell concentration of 1 × 106 cells/mL. To each tube, add 1 µL of Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet Stain and mix well. Final stain concentration is 5 µM. Incubate at 37°C for 30 minutes, protected from light. Keep cells at 37°C until acquisition. Analyze samples without washing or fixing on a flow cytometer using ~405 nm excitation and ~440 nm emission.

NucBlue™ Fixed Cell ReadyProbes™ Reagent (Invitrogen™)

DAPI is a commonly used nuclear counterstain for fixed cells that emits blue fluorescence when bound to DNA. With NucBlue® Fixed Cell ReadyProbes® Reagent, we have formulated a high-purity form of this classic stain in a room temperature-stable solution that is provided in a convenient-to-use dropper bottle. Just tip and drip two drops per ml to stain your cells.

• No need to dilute, weigh, or pipette
• Convenient dropper bottle—just use two drops per mL
• Stable at room temperature—keep handy at your scope or cell culture area• DAPI is excited with UV light and detected through a blue/cyan filter

See other ReadyProbes® reagents for cell staining
See other nuclear stains for imaging

Cell imaging applications
DAPI is a classic fluorescent dye used extensively for nuclear staining of fixed cells. In fluorescence microscopy, DAPI is excited with UV light and detected through a blue/cyan filter (Figure 1)..

Suggestions for use
In most cases 2 drops/ml of NucBlue® Fixed Cell Stain and an incubation of 15 to 30 minutes will produce bright nuclear staining; however, optimization may be needed for some cell types, conditions, and applications. In such cases, simply add more, or fewer, drops until the optimal staining intensity is obtained.
• NucBlue® Fixed Cell Stain is excited by UV light at 360 nm when bound to DNA, with an emission maximum at 460 nm. It is detected through a blue/cyan filter, such as a DAPI filter, blue GFP filters, or the Semrock BrightLine® Alexa Fluor® 350 Dye filter set.
• As a preferred blue nuclear stain in fixed cell imaging experiments, NucBlue® Fixed Cell Stain is ideal for use with antibody-based applications.

Propidium Iodide (Invitrogen™)

Propidium iodide (PI) is a popular red-fluorescent nuclear and chromosome counterstain. Since propidium iodide is not permeant to live cells, it is also commonly used to detect dead cells in a population.

PI binds to DNA by intercalating between the bases with little or no sequence preference. In aqueous solution, the dye has excitation/emission maxima of 493/636 nm. Once the dye is bound, its fluorescence is enhanced 20- to 30-fold, the fluorescence excitation maximum is shifted ~30–40 nm to the red and the fluorescence emission maximum is shifted ~15 nm to the blue, resulting in an excitation maximum at 535 nm and fluorescence emission maximum at 617 nm.

PI is widely used in fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, flow cytometry, and fluorometry.

Learn more about propidium iodide, and propidium iodide containing products

Hoechst 34580 (Invitrogen™)

This bisbenzimide dye, Hoechst 34580, is related to the important minor-groove binding, dsDNA-selective dyes Hoechst 33258 and Hoechst 33342. Hoechst 34580 has somewhat longer-wavelength spectra than the other Hoechst dyes when bound to nucleic acids [Howard Shapiro, personal communication].

SYTO™ Blue Fluorescent Nucleic Acid Stain Sampler Kit (SYTO™ dyes 40, 41, 42, 45) (Invitrogen™)

The SYTO Blue Fluorescent Nucleic Acid Stain Sampler Kit contains a collection of cell-permeant, blue-fluorescent SYTO nucleic acid stains (SYTO® dyes 40, 41, 42, 45). Because the dyes may demonstrate different staining behaviors with various tissues and cells, it may be necessary to test the dyes to find the optimal dye for a specific application. The kit contains 50 µL of each SYTO dye.