Shop All Amine-Reactive Fluorophores, Biotins, Quantum Dots, & Other Labels

6-TAMRA, SE (6-Carboxytetramethylrhodamine, Succinimidyl Ester), single isomer Invitrogen™

The isomeric 6-TAMRA, SE is an amine-reactive form of tetramethylrhodamine. The single-isomer preparations of TAMRA are most important for high-resolution techniques such as DNA sequencing and capillary electrophoresis. 6-TAMRA is one of the traditional fluorophores used for automated DNA sequencing.

Alexa Fluor™ 514 NHS Ester (Succinimidyl Ester) Invitrogen™

Alexa Fluor® 514 is a bright, green-fluorescent dye. Used for stable signal generation in imaging and flow cytometry, Alexa Fluor® 514 dye is water soluble and pH-insensitive from pH 4 to pH 10. In addition to reactive dye formulations, we offer Alexa Fluor® 514 dye conjugated to a variety of antibodies, peptides, proteins, tracers, and amplification substrates optimized for cellular labeling and detection.

The NHS ester (or succinimidyl ester) of Alexa Fluor® 514 is the most popular tool for conjugating this dye to a protein or antibody. NHS esters can be used to label to the primary amines (R-NH2) of proteins, amine-modified oligonucleotides, and other amine-containing molecules. The resulting Alexa Fluor® conjugate will exhibit brighter fluorescence and greater photostability than the conjugates of other spectrally similar fluorophores.

Detailed information about this AlexaFluor® NHS ester:

Fluorophore label: Alexa Fluor® 514 dye
Reactive group: NHS ester
Reactivity: Primary amines on proteins and ligands, amine-modified oligonucleotides
Ex/Em of the conjugate: 517/542 nm
Extinction coefficient: 80,000 cm-1M-2

Typical Conjugation Reaction
You can conjugate amine-reactive reagents with virtually any protein or peptide (the provided protocol is optimized for IgG antibodies). You can scale the reaction for any amount of protein, but the concentration of the protein should be at least 2 mg/mL for optimal results. We recommend trying three different degrees of labeling, using three different molar ratios of the reactive reagent to protein.

The Alexa Fluor® NHS ester is typically dissolved in high-quality anhydrous dimethylformamide (DMF) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) (D12345), and the reaction is carried out in 0.1–0.2 M sodium bicarbonate buffer, pH 8.3, at room temperature for 1 hour. Because the pKa of the terminal amine is lower than that of the lysine epsilon-amino group, you may achieve more selective labeling of the amine terminus using a buffer closer to neutral pH.

Conjugate Purification
Labeled antibodies are typically separated from free Alexa Fluor® dye using a gel filtration column, such as Sephadex™ G-25, BioGel® P-30, or equivalent. For much larger or smaller proteins, select a gel filtration media with an appropriate molecular weight cut-off or purify by dialysis. We offer several purification kits optimized for different quantities of antibody conjugate:
Antibody Conjugate Purification Kit for 0.5-1 mg (A33086)
Antibody Conjugate Purification Kit for 20-50 µg (A33087)
Antibody Conjugate Purification kit for 50-100 µg (A33088)

Learn More About Protein and Antibody Labeling
We offer a wide selection of Molecular Probes® antibody and protein labeling kits to fit your starting material and your experimental setup. See our Antibody Labeling kits or use our Labeling Chemistry Selection Tool for other choices. To learn more about our labeling kits, read Kits for Labeling Proteins and Nucleic Acids—Section 1.2 in The Molecular Probes® Handbook.

We’ll Make a Custom Conjugate for You
If you can’t find what you’re looking for in our online catalog, we’ll prepare a custom antibody or protein conjugate for you. Our custom conjugation service is efficient and confidential, and we stand by the quality of our work. We are ISO 9001:2000 certified.

BODIPY™ 558/568 NHS Ester (Succinimidyl Ester) Invitrogen™

BODIPY® 558/568 dye is bright, red fluorescent dye. It has a high extinction coefficient and fluorescence quantum yield and is relatively insensitive to solvent polarity and pH change. In contrast to the highly water soluble fluorophores Alexa Fluor® 488 dye and fluorescein (FITC), BODIPY® dyes have unique hydrophobic properties ideal for staining lipids, membranes, and other lipophilic compounds. BODIPY® 558/568 dye has a relatively long excited-state lifetime (typically 5 nanoseconds or longer), which is useful for fluorescence polarization-based assays and a large two-photon cross-section for multiphoton excitation. In addition to reactive dye formulations, we offer BODIPY® 558/568 dye conjugated to a variety of antibodies, peptides, proteins, tracers, and amplification substrates optimized for cellular labeling and detection.

The NHS ester (or succinimidyl ester) of BODIPY® 558/568 is the most popular tool for conjugating the dye to a protein or antibody. NHS esters can be used to label the primary amines (R-NH2) of proteins, amine-modified oligonucleotides, and other amine-containing molecules. The resulting BODIPY® 558/568 conjugates exhibit bright fluorescence, narrow emission bandwidths, and relatively long excited-state lifetimes, which can be useful for fluorescence polarization assays and two-photon excitation (TPE) microscopy.

This reactive dye contains a C3 alkyl spacer between the fluorophore and the NHS ester group. This spacer helps to separate the fluorophore from its point of attachment, potentially reducing the interaction of the fluorophore with the biomolecule to which it is conjugated.

Detailed information about this BODIPY® 558/568 NHS ester:

Fluorophore label: BODIPY® 558/568 dye
Reactive group: NHS ester (succinimidyl ester)
Reactivity: Primary amines on proteins and ligands, amine-modified oligonucleotides
Ex/Em of the conjugate: 559/568 nm
Extinction coefficient: 97,000 cm-1M-1
Molecular weight: 443.23

Typical Conjugation Reaction
Amine-reactive reagents can be conjugated with virtually any protein or peptide; the provided protocol is optimized for IgG antibodies. The reaction can be scaled for any amount of protein, but the concentration of the protein should be at least 2 mg/mL for optimal results. We recommend trying three different degrees of labeling, using three different molar ratios of the reactive reagent to protein.

The BODIPY® NHS ester is typically dissolved in high-quality anhydrous dimethylformamide (DMF) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and the reaction is carried out in 0.1-0.2 M sodium bicarbonate buffer, pH 8.3, at room temperature for 1 hour. Because the pKa of the terminal amine is lower than that of the lysine epsilon-amino group, you may achieve more selective labeling of the amine terminus using a buffer closer to neutral pH.

Conjugate Purification
Labeled antibodies are typically separated from free BODIPY® dye using a gel filtration column, such as Sephadex™ G-25, BioGel® P-30, or equivalent. For much larger or smaller proteins, select a gel filtration medium with an appropriate molecular weight cut-off or purify by dialysis. We offer several purification kits optimized for different quantities of antibody conjugate:
Antibody Conjugate Purification Kit for 0.5-1 mg (A33086)
Antibody Conjugate Purification Kit for 20-50 µg (A33087)
Antibody Conjugate Purification kit for 50-100 µg (A33088)

Learn More About Protein and Antibody Labeling
We offer a wide selection of Molecular Probes® antibody and protein labeling kits to fit your starting material and your experimental setup. See our Antibody Labeling kits or use our Labeling Chemistry Selection Tool for other choices. To learn more about our labeling kits, read Kits for Labeling Proteins and Nucleic Acids—Section 1.2 in The Molecular Probes® Handbook.

We’ll Make a Custom Conjugate for You
If you can’t find what you’re looking for in our online catalog, we’ll prepare a custom antibody or protein conjugate for you. Our custom conjugation service is efficient and confidential, and we stand by the quality of our work. We are ISO 9001:2000 certified.

LanthaScreen™ Thiol Reactive Tb Chelate

As part of the LanthaScreen® TR-FRET toolbox of assay reagents, LanthaScreen® Thiol Reactive Tb Chelate labeling reagent is available for assay development. The thiol-reactive maleimide group can be conjugated to virtually any peptide or protein that contains one or more accessible thiol moieties, such as the thiol group found on a cysteine residue. Energy transfer from the terbium donor to a suitable acceptor such as fluorescein is readily detected by monitoring an increase in acceptor fluorescence intensity. See the user guide for an application-based protocol for cysteine-containing peptides or proteins.

Qdot™ 585 ITK™ Amino (PEG) Quantum Dots Invitrogen™

Qdot® 585 ITK™ amino (PEG) quantum dots are the ideal starting material for preparing custom conjugates of ultrabright and photostable fluorescently labeled proteins or other biopolymers. These probes are functionalized with amine-derivatized PEG, which prevents non-specific interactions and provides a convenient handle for conjugation. The amino quantum dots react efficiently with isothiocyanates and succinimidyl esters, or with native carboxylic acids using water-soluble carbodiimides such as EDC. Such derivatives may be used for various labeling and tracking applications that require ultrabright and stable fluorescence. Our Qdot® ITK™ amino quantum dots are provided as 8 µM solutions and are available in 8 colors of Qdot® probes.

Important Features of Qdot® ITK™ Amino Quantum Dots:
• Qdot® 585 ITK™ amino quantum dot has emission maxima of ~585 nm
• Extremely photostable and bright fluorescence
• Efficiently excited with single-line excitation sources
• Narrow emission, large stokes shift
• Available in multiple colors
• Ideal for various labeling and tracking applications


Properties of Qdot® Nanocrystals
Qdot® probes are ideal for imaging and labeling applications that require bright fluorescent signals and/or real-time tracking. Unique among fluorescent reagents, all nine available colors of Qdot® probes can be simultaneously excited with a single (UV to blue-green) light source. This property makes these reagents excellent for economical and user-friendly multiplexing applications. Qdot® labels are based on semiconductor nanotechnology and are similar in scale to moderately sized proteins.

About the Innovator’s Tool Kit Qdot® ITK™ Reagents
These Qdot® ITK™ probes are ideal for researchers who wish to prepare specific (non-stocked) conjugates for their applications and need customizable conjugation functionality.

Other Forms of Qdot® Nanocrystals are Available
In addition to the amine-derivatized form, we offer Qdot® ITK™ quantum dots with carboxyl and aliphatic hydrocarbon modifications. We’ve also developed a wide range of Qdot® nanocrystals conjugates and labeling kits. Investigate the properties of Qdot® nanocrystals or read the Molecular Probes® Handbook Section 6.6—Qdot® Nanocrystals to find out more.

For Research Use Only. Not intended for any animal or human therapeutic or diagnostic use.

Alexa Fluor™ 488 TFP ester Invitrogen™

Alexa Fluor® dyes are reactive molecules that can be used to add a fluorescent label to the primary amines (R-NH2) of proteins, amine-modified oligonucleotides, and other amine-containing molecules. The resulting Alexa Fluor® conjugates exhibit brighter fluorescence and greater photostability than the conjugates of other spectrally similar fluorophores. Alexa Fluor® 488 TFP ester produces a conjugate with excitation/emission of 495/515 nm that is spectrally similar to fluorescein (FITC) and Cy2 conjugates.

Alexa Fluor® dyes are available with fluorescence emissions that span the visible and near-infrared spectrum (see The Alexa Fluor® Dye Series—Note 1.1 in The Molecular Probes® Handbook) and provide the unique combination of water solubility and pH insensitivity between pH 4 and 10 for compatibility in diverse biological environments.

TFP (tetrafluorophenyl) esters are an improvement over the succinimidyl ester (SE or NHS-ester) chemistry typically used to attach fluorophores or haptens to the primary amines of biomolecules. Both reactive chemistries produce the same strong amide bond between the dye or hapten and the compound of interest, but TFP esters are less susceptible to spontaneous hydrolysis during conjugation reactions. Alexa Fluor® TFP esters are stable for several hours at the basic pH typically used for reactions–far outlasting succinimidyl esters.

Typical Conjugation Reaction
You can conjugate amine-reactive reagents with virtually any protein or peptide; the provided protocol is optimized for IgG antibodies. You may scale the reaction for any amount of protein, but the concentration of the protein should be at least 2 mg/mL for optimal results. We recommend trying three different degrees of labeling, using three different molar ratios of the reactive reagent to protein.

The Alexa Fluor® TFP ester is typically dissolved in high-quality, anhydrous dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) (D12345) , and the reaction is carried out in 0.1–0.2 M sodium bicarbonate buffer, pH 8.3, at room temperature for 1 hour. Because the pKa of the terminal amine is lower than that of the lysine epsilon-amino group, you may achieve more selective labeling of the amine terminus using a buffer closer to neutral pH.

Conjugate Purification
Labeled antibodies are typically separated from free Alexa Fluor® dye using a gel filtration column, such as Sephadex™ G-25, BioGel® P-30, or equivalent. For much larger or smaller proteins, select a gel filtration media with an appropriate molecular weight cut-off or purify by dialysis.

Learn More About Protein and Antibody Labeling
We offer a wide selection of Molecular Probes® antibody and protein labeling kits to fit your starting material and your experimental setup. See Antibody Labeling from A to Z or use our Labeling Chemistry Selection Tool for other choices. To learn more about our labeling kits, read Kits for Labeling Proteins and Nucleic Acids—Section 1.2 in The Molecular Probes® Handbook.

We’ll Make a Custom Conjugate for You
If you can’t find what you’re looking for in our online catalog, we’ll prepare a custom antibody or protein conjugate for you. Our custom conjugation service is efficient and confidential, and we are ISO 9001:2000 certified.

DyLight™ 633-B2 NHS Ester Thermo Scientific™

Thermo Scientific DyLight 633-B2 NHS Ester is a benzopyrillium-based red-emitting specialty dye that can be used to label peptides, antibodies, and other proteins at primary amines. This dye has excitation and emission peaks at 637 and 657 nm, respectively (in ethanol) and an extinction coefficient of 200,000 M-1cm-1

General features of DyLight red-emitting specialty dyes:

Large selection—the largest family of dyes available for red-emitting fluorescence applications
NHS ester reactive group—allows immediate labeling of antibodies, proteins, peptides, and other amine-containing molecules through amide bond formation
Multiple solubility options—choose from hydrophilic to hydrophobic dyes to optimize the right dye label for the best performance in a given application

DyLight Red-emitting Dyes are a family of labeling agents that provide bright fluorescence detection for imaging. Dyes can be selected based upon their characteristic excitation and emission properties or relative hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity attributes. Dyes that contain a greater number of negatively charged sulfonates generally will have greater water solubility than dyes with fewer sulfonates. More hydrophobic dyes often provide better cell penetrating ability in vivo, while more hydrophilic dyes have less nonspecific binding potential. Each dye contains an amine-reactive NHS ester for simple modification of antibodies, proteins, peptides or other biomolecules through amide bond formation.

DyLight Red-emitting Dyes are a family of labeling agents that provide bright fluorescence detection for imaging. Dyes can be selected based upon their characteristic excitation and emission properties or relative hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity attributes. Dyes that contain a greater number of negatively charged sulfonates generally will have greater water solubility than dyes with fewer sulfonates. More hydrophobic dyes often provide better cell penetrating ability in vivo, while more hydrophilic dyes have less nonspecific binding potential. Each dye contains an amine-reactive NHS ester for simple modification of antibodies, proteins, peptides or other biomolecules through amide bond formation.

Criteria to consider when choosing a DyLight Red-emitting Specialty Dye
• Excitation and emission wavelengths—choose the best dye to match the excitation and emission capabilities of your instrument
• Water solubility—choose a dye based on its relative hydrophilicity, which directly correlates to the number of negatively-charged sulfonates it has on its core structure. More hydrophilic dyes are best at maintaining water solubility of a labeled antibody and limiting the nonspecific binding of the conjugate. More hydrophobic dyes often are best at penetrating tissues and cell membranes in vivo, meaning that dyes with fewer sulfonates may work best for some applications.
• DyLight dye selection—the broad selection of red-emitting dyes allows a number of candidate dyes to be tested in a given application for optimal performance.

Applications:
• Fluorescence imaging
• Confocal microscopy
• Flow cytometry
• Spectral fluorescence imaging
In vivo imaging
• Fluorescent western blotting
• Protein microarrays
• Antibody labeling
• Peptide labeling
• Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy
• Protein arrays
• Single molecule detection
• Nanoparticle conjugation
• Biotin/streptavidin conjugation

Related Products
DyLight™ 615-B1 NHS Ester
DyLight™ 633-B1 NHS Ester
DyLight™ 633-B3 NHS Ester
DyLight™ 635-B2 NHS Ester

Texas Red™ C2-Dichlorotriazine Invitrogen™

Texas Red C2-dichlorotriazine is a reactive dye with absorption/emission maxima of ~588/601 nm. Dichlorotriazines readily modify amines in proteins, and are among the few reactive groups that are reported to react directly with polysaccharides and other alcohols in aqueous solution, provided that the pH is >9 and that other nucleophiles are absent.

5-ROX (5-Carboxy-X-Rhodamine, Triethylammonium Salt), single isomer Invitrogen™

The carboxylic acid of 5-ROX is used for oligonucleotide labeling and automated DNA sequencing applications. Conjugates of this dye have longer-wavelength spectra than the spectra of Lisaamine™ rhodamine B conjugates, but somewhat shorter-wavelength spectra than those of Texas Red® conjugates.

DyLight™ 800-4xPEG NHS Ester Thermo Scientific™

Thermo Scientific DyLight 800-4xPEG Amine-Reactive Dye is a derivative of our high-performance DyLight 800 Dye that can be used to fluorescently label antibodies and other proteins for near-IR detection.

The DyLight 800-4xPEG dye contains 4 polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains that are non-cytotoxic, enhance fluorescence and reduce nonspecific binding of conjugates made with them. Conjugates made with DyLight 800-4xPEG Dye can be used as molecular probes for cellular imaging and other fluorescence detection methods. The NIR fluorescence properties of DyLight 800-4xPEG Dye make it especially useful in a variety of biological, chemical, and pharmaceutical applications, including in vivo imaging. The PEG chains also improve solubility of the dyes and labeled molecules in aqueous solution, aid in cell permeability and improve tissue retention.

Features of DyLight 800-4xPEG NHS Ester:

High fluorescence intensity—fluorescence comparable to Alexa Fluor™ 800 and IRDye™ 800
PEGylated—improves solubility in aqueous solution and aids in cell permeability

Applications:
• Fluorescence microscopy
In vivo or ex vivo imaging
• Cell-based assays
• Flow cytometry/fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)

DyLight 800-4xPEG Amine-Reactive Dye is activated with an N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester moiety to react with exposed N-terminal α-amino groups or the ε-amino groups of lysine residues to form stable amide bonds. Learn more about NHS ester chemistry.

Typical labeling reactions require the dye to first be dissolved in anhydrous dimethyl formamide (DMF) or another suitable organic solvent before adding a specific molar amount of dye to an amine-free buffer containing the protein to be labeled. However, the high solubility of DyLight Fluors permits protein solutions to be added directly to the labeling reagent.

BODIPY™ 576/589 NHS Ester (Succinimidyl Ester) Invitrogen™

BODIPY® 576/589 dye is bright, red fluorescent dye with similar excitation and emission to Rhodamine Red™ and Alexa Fluor®568. It has a high extinction coefficient and fluorescence quantum yield and is relatively insensitive to solvent polarity and pH change. In contrast to the highly water soluble fluorophores Alexa Fluor® 488 dye and fluorescein (FITC), BODIPY® dyes have unique hydrophobic properties ideal for staining lipids, membranes, and other lipophilic compounds. BODIPY® 576/589 dye has a relatively long excited-state lifetime (typically 5 nanoseconds or longer), which is useful for fluorescence polarization-based assays and a large two-photon cross-section for multiphoton excitation. In addition to reactive dye formulations, we offer BODIPY® 576/589 dye conjugated to a variety of antibodies, peptides, proteins, tracers, and amplification substrates optimized for cellular labeling and detection.

The NHS ester (or succinimidyl ester) of BODIPY® 576/589 is the most popular tool for conjugating the dye to a protein or antibody. NHS esters can be used to label the primary amines (R-NH2) of proteins, amine-modified oligonucleotides, and other amine-containing molecules. The resulting BODIPY® 576/589 conjugates exhibit bright fluorescence, narrow emission bandwidths, and relatively long excited-state lifetimes, which can be useful for fluorescence polarization assays and two-photon excitation (TPE) microscopy.

This reactive dye contains a C3 alkyl spacer between the fluorophore and the NHS ester group. This spacer helps to separate the fluorophore from its point of attachment, potentially reducing the interaction of the fluorophore with the biomolecule to which it is conjugated.

Detailed information about this BODIPY® 576/589 NHS ester:

Fluorophore label: BODIPY® 576/589 dye
Reactive group: NHS ester (succinimidyl ester)
Reactivity: Primary amines on proteins and ligands, amine-modified oligonucleotides
Ex/Em of the conjugate: 575/588 nm
Extinction coefficient: 83,000 cm-1M-1
Molecular weight: 426.19

Typical Conjugation Reaction
Amine-reactive reagents can be conjugated with virtually any protein or peptide; the provided protocol is optimized for IgG antibodies. The reaction can be scaled for any amount of protein, but the concentration of the protein should be at least 2 mg/mL for optimal results. We recommend trying three different degrees of labeling, using three different molar ratios of the reactive reagent to protein.

The BODIPY® NHS ester is typically dissolved in high-quality anhydrous dimethylformamide (DMF) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and the reaction is carried out in 0.1-0.2 M sodium bicarbonate buffer, pH 8.3, at room temperature for 1 hour. Because the pKa of the terminal amine is lower than that of the lysine epsilon-amino group, you may achieve more selective labeling of the amine terminus using a buffer closer to neutral pH.

Conjugate Purification
Labeled antibodies are typically separated from free BODIPY® dye using a gel filtration column, such as Sephadex™ G-25, BioGel® P-30, or equivalent. For much larger or smaller proteins, select a gel filtration medium with an appropriate molecular weight cut-off or purify by dialysis. We offer several purification kits optimized for different quantities of antibody conjugate:
Antibody Conjugate Purification Kit for 0.5-1 mg (A33086)
Antibody Conjugate Purification Kit for 20-50 µg (A33087)
Antibody Conjugate Purification kit for 50-100 µg (A33088)

Learn More About Protein and Antibody Labeling
We offer a wide selection of Molecular Probes® antibody and protein labeling kits to fit your starting material and your experimental setup. See our Antibody Labeling kits or use our Labeling Chemistry Selection Tool for other choices. To learn more about our labeling kits, read Kits for Labeling Proteins and Nucleic Acids—Section 1.2 in The Molecular Probes® Handbook.

We’ll Make a Custom Conjugate for You
If you can’t find what you’re looking for in our online catalog, we’ll prepare a custom antibody or protein conjugate for you. Our custom conjugation service is efficient and confidential, and we stand by the quality of our work. We are ISO 9001:2000 certified.

5(6)-CR 6G, SE (5-(and-6)-Carboxyrhodamine 6G, Succinimidyl Ester), mixed isomers Invitrogen™

The excitation and emission spectra of carboxyrhodamine 6G (CR 6G) fall between those of fluorescein and tetramethylrhodamine. With a peak absorption at 525 nm, conjugates of carboxyrhodamine 6G are an excellent match to the 514 nm spectral line of the argon-ion laser. The amine-reactive 5(6)CR 6G, SE can be used to attach this fluorophore to biomolecules of interest.

DyLight™ 747-B4 NHS Ester Thermo Scientific™

Thermo Scientific DyLight near-infrared specialty dyes, comparable to Alexa Fluor and IRDye NIR dyes, can be used to label antibodies, peptides, and other proteins at primary amines. DyLight 747-B4 dye has a structure based on the benzopyrillium core, with 4 sulfonate. It has excitation and emission peaks at 748 and 775 nm, respectively (in ethanol).

General characteristics of DyLight near-infrared emitting specialty dyes:

Large selection—the largest family of dyes available for NIR fluorescence applications
NHS ester reactive group—allows immediate labeling of antibodies, proteins, peptides and other amine-containing molecules through amide bond formation
Broad spectrum of water solubilities—choose from hydrophilic to hydrophobic dyes to optimize the right dye label for the best performance in a given application
NIR dyes avoid background interference—DyLight NIR Dyes avoid fluorescence interference or quenching effects from biomolecules present in samples
Excellent signal penetration through cells and tissues—DyLight NIR Dyes provide the optimal window for excitation and emission for in vivo imaging applications

DyLight NIR Dyes are a family of labeling agents that can be used for bright fluorescence detection in cell-based imaging or in vivo imaging applications. NIR dyes can be selected based upon their characteristic excitation and emission properties or relative hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity attributes. Dyes that contain a greater number of negatively charged sulfonates generally will have greater water solubility than dyes with fewer sulfonates. More hydrophobic dyes often provide better cell penetrating ability in vivo, while more hydrophilic dyes have less nonspecific binding potential. Each dye contains an amine-reactive NHS ester for simple modification of antibodies, proteins, peptides or other biomolecules through amide bond formation. NIR dyes are best for imaging through tissues and away from indigenous fluorescent biomolecule interference or quenching. DyLight Near Infrared Dyes represent the largest selection of fluorescent labels that are commercially available.

Criteria to consider when choosing a DyLight NIR Specialty Dye
• Excitation and emission wavelengths—choose the best dye to match the excitation and emission capabilities of your instrument
• Water solubility—choose a DyLight NIR Dye based on its relative hydrophilicity, which directly correlates to the number of negatively-charged sulfonates it has on its core structure. More hydrophilic dyes are best at maintaining water solubility of a labeled antibody and limiting the nonspecific binding of the conjugate. More hydrophobic dyes often are best at penetrating tissues and cell membranes in vivo, meaning that dyes with fewer sulfonates may work best for some applications.
• DyLight Dye selection—the broad selection of NIR dyes allows a number of candidate dyes to be tested in a given application for optimal performance.

Applications:
In vivo or ex vivo imaging
• Tumor imaging with labeled peptides
• NIR fluorescence (NIRF) imaging of labeled silica nanoparticles
• NIR in vitro imaging and characterization
• Determination of thermal stability
• Cytotoxicity assays
• Molecular imaging
• UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy
• Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy
• MRI applications
• DNA sequencing
• Primer labeling for PCR
• 2-D gel electrophoresis
• Flow cytometry/fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)
• Laser scanning confocal microscopy

Related Products
DyLight™ 747-B1 NHS Ester
DyLight™ 747-B2 NHS Ester
DyLight™ 747-B3 NHS Ester

LanthaScreen™ Amine Reactive Tb Chelate

As part of the LanthaScreen® TR-FRET toolbox of assay reagents, LanthaScreen® Amine Reactive Tb Chelate labeling reagent is available for assay development. The amine-reactive, isothiocyanate group conjugates to virtually any peptide or protein that contains one or more accessible amine moieties, such as the amine group found on a lysine residue or an unmodified N-terminal amine group of a peptide or protein. Amine-modified DNA oligonucleotides can be labeled as well. Energy transfer from the terbium donor to a suitable acceptor such as fluorescein is readily detected by monitoring an increase in acceptor fluorescence intensity. See the user guide for application-based protocols for labeling peptides containing free amino groups, amine-modified oligonucleotides, and IgG antibodies.

Qdot™ 655 ITK™ Amino (PEG) Quantum Dots Invitrogen™

Qdot® 655 ITK™ amino (PEG) quantum dots are the ideal starting material for preparing custom conjugates of ultrabright and photostable fluorescently labeled proteins or other biopolymers. These probes are functionalized with amine-derivatized PEG, which prevents non-specific interactions and provides a convenient handle for conjugation. The amino quantum dots react efficiently with isothiocyanates and succinimidyl esters, or with native carboxylic acids using water-soluble carbodiimides such as EDC. Such derivatives may be used for various labeling and tracking applications that require ultrabright and stable fluorescence. Our Qdot® ITK™ amino quantum dots are provided as 8 µM solutions and are available in 8 colors of Qdot® probes.

Important Features of Qdot® ITK™ Amino Quantum Dots:
• Qdot® 655 ITK™ amino quantum dot has emission maxima of ~655 nm
• Extremely photostable and bright fluorescence
• Efficiently excited with single-line excitation sources
• Narrow emission, large stokes shift
• Available in multiple colors
• Ideal for various labeling and tracking applications


Properties of Qdot® Nanocrystals
Qdot® probes are ideal for imaging and labeling applications that require bright fluorescent signals and/or real-time tracking. Unique among fluorescent reagents, all nine available colors of Qdot® probes can be simultaneously excited with a single (UV to blue-green) light source. This property makes these reagents excellent for economical and user-friendly multiplexing applications. Qdot® labels are based on semiconductor nanotechnology and are similar in scale to moderately sized proteins.

About the Innovator’s Tool Kit Qdot® ITK™ Reagents
These Qdot® ITK™ probes are ideal for researchers who wish to prepare specific (non-stocked) conjugates for their applications and need customizable conjugation functionality.

Other Forms of Qdot® Nanocrystals are Available
In addition to the amine-derivatized form, we offer Qdot® ITK™ quantum dots with carboxyl and aliphatic hydrocarbon modifications. We’ve also developed a wide range of Qdot® nanocrystals conjugates and labeling kits. Investigate the properties of Qdot® nanocrystals or read the Molecular Probes® Handbook Section 6.6—Qdot® Nanocrystals to find out more.

For Research Use Only. Not intended for any animal or human therapeutic or diagnostic use.
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