Fatty acid diglycerides with a phosphatidyl ester attached to the terminal carbon. The terminal ester groups are mainly ethanolamine, choline, serine, or inositol. GPLs are highly amphiphilic and are normally components of cellular or vesicle membranes.
The phospholipid, NBD-PE is labeled on the head group with the environment sensitive fluorophore, NBD (excitation/emission maxima ∼463/536 nm). Prepare stock solutions of phosphoethanolamines in ethanol to attain a stock concentration of 1 to 2 mg/mL. Sonication may be necessary to aid dispersion.
The phospholipid, Texas Red™ 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, triethylammonium salt (Texas Red™ DHPE) is labeled on the head group with the bright, red-fluorescent Texas Red™ dye (excitation/emission maxima ∼595/615 nm).
Molecular Probes™ phospholipase substrates are dye labeled phospholipids used to monitor phospholipase A (PLA) activity in purified enzyme preparations, cell lysates, and living cells. Two structural variations of these substrates are available, which confer specificity for PLA1 and PLA2.
The intensely fluorescent BODIPY® (4,4-difluoro-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene) fluorophore is intrinsically lipophilic, unlikemost other long-wavelength dyes. Consequently, probes incorporating this fluorophore are more likely to mimic the properties of natural lipids.
The phospholipid, Oregon Green® 488 DHPE is labeled on the head group with the green-fluorescent Oregon Green® fluorophore with excitation/emission maxima ∼501/526 nm. This fluorinated analog of fluorescein overcomes some of the key limitations of fluorescein, including greater photostability and a...
BODIPY™ DHPE has the green-fluorescent dye attached to the head group of the phospholipid. BODIPY™ FL can form excimers at high concentrations and unlike fluorophores like pyrene, DPH and NBD, BODIPY™ FL is relatively environment insensitive and is fluorescent in both aqueous and lipid environments.