Shop All Miscellaneous Molecular Biology Reagents

Phenol:Chloroform + Tris Buffer Thermo Scientific™

Thermo Scientific Pierce Phenol-Chloroform is phenol supplied premixed with chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1) and accompanying bottle of buffer to equilibrate at either pH 6.7 or pH 8.0.

Features of Phenol:Chloroform + Tris Buffer :

• Offers excellent, nuclease-free performance
• Phenol is supplied premixed with Chloroform:Isoamyl Alcohol (25:24:1)
• Supplied at pH 6.7 for special, lower pH DNA extractions; for most DNA applications, the alkaline buffer (included) should be added to produce a pH of 8.0

IPTG Solution, ready-to-use Thermo Scientific™

Thermo Scientific IPTG (isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside) is a highly stable synthetic analog of lactose. It inactivates the lac repressor and induces synthesis of beta-galactosidase, an enzyme that promotes lactose utilization. IPTG is used to induce expression of cloned genes under control of the lac operon. It is used in conjunction with X-Gal (#R0941) to determine the lac phenotype in blue/white colony screening.

Applications

• Blue/white colony screening to distinguish recombinant (white) from non-recombinant (blue) colonies
• Induction of gene expression under control of the lac promoter

Note
• For blue/white colony screening use 0.1 mM final IPTG concentration in LB (Luria Broth) media
• Store IPTG Solution at -20°C.

Related Products
IPTG, dioxane-free
IPTG Solution, ready-to-use

Orange DNA Loading Dye (6X) Thermo Scientific™

Thermo Scientific 6X Orange Loading Dye is used to prepare DNA markers and samples for loading on agarose or polyacrylamide gels. It contains two different dyes (xylene cyanol FF and orange G) for visual tracking of DNA migration during electrophoresis. The presence of glycerol ensures that the DNA in the ladder and sample forms a layer at the bottom of the well. The EDTA included in the solutions binds divalent metal ions and inhibits metal-dependent nucleases.

6X Orange DNA Loading Dye is used for conventional DNA electrophoresis.

Highlights

• Two-color tracking of DNA migration during DNA electrophoresis
• No DNA masking during gel exposure to UV light
• EDTA binds divalent metal ions and inhibits metal dependent nucleases

Applications

• Analysis of small DNA molecules
• Preparation of DNA ladders, markers, and samples for loading on agarose or polyacrylamide gels

CML Latex Beads, 4% w/v, 0.02 µm Invitrogen™

Microspheres (also called latex beads or latex particles) are spherical particles in the colloidal size range that are formed from an amorphous polymer such as polystyrene. Because of the way that the polystyrene chains arrange themselves in the bead, the surface is very hydrophobic in character, making these ideal materials for the adsorption of materials such as proteins.

These carboxylate modified (CML) latex particles are produced by copolymerizing carboxylic acid containing polymers. The result is a latex polymer particle with a highly charged, relatively hydrophilic and somewhat 'fluffy' surface layer. The CML particles are electrosterically stabilized, and are therefore safe in concentrations of electrolyte up to 1M univalent salt. CML modified latex particles are negatively charged with a surface which has a polyelectrolyte character. It is only when the pH is ~10 that all the carboxyl groups are ionized. This is a hydrophilic latex.

Microspheres Are Available in Many Sizes and Surface Functionalities
25 sizes to choose from—0.02 microns to 16 microns
20 different surface—for ready conjugation to virtually any material
Surfactant free—ultraclean
Various quantities—from milliliter to 500-liter amounts

Key Applications of Microspheres
Instrument calibration (flow cytometry, microscopy, HTS, HCS)
Flow testing (microfluidics, blood flow, water flow, and air flow)
Cell biology tracers (cell differentiation and cell tracing)
Immunoassays (agglutination tests, ELISA, particle capture, and contrast reagents)

Get More Information
Read a technical overview of microspheres and find out about high activity beads, super active beads, specialty beads, and review bead-coupling protocols on the IDC Surfactant-free Latex Beads application page.

We’ll Make a Custom Microsphere Product for You
If you don’t see the microsphere you’re looking for in our stocked list, we’ll make a custom microsphere for you. Our custom conjugation service is efficient and confidential, and we guarantee the quality of our work. We are ISO 9001:2000 certified.

For Research Use Only. Not intended for animal or human therapeutic or diagnostic use.

5-Fluoroorotic Acid Thermo Scientific™

Thermo Scientific 5-Fluoroorotic Acid (5-fluorouracil-6-carboxylic acid monohydrate; 5-FOA) is used in yeast molecular genetics to detect expression of the URA3 gene, which encodes orotine-5'-monophosphate (OMP) dicarboxylase. Yeasts with an active URA3 gene (Ura+) convert 5-FOA to fluorodeoxyuridine, which is toxic to cells (see the scheme below). Yeast strains carrying a mutation in the URA3 gene grow in the presence of 5-FOA if the media is supplemented with uracil. 5-FOA is frequently used in experiments with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (URA3), Schizosaccharomyces pombe (URA4 and URA5), Candida albicans (URA3), and E. coli (pyrF).

Applications

• Detection of URA3 gene expression in yeast
• Construction of yeast 2-hybrid libraries
• Other areas of yeast genetics including gene replacement, analysis of transposable genetic elements, and identification of gene mutation

Note
• Low solubility in water
• Solubility in dimethylsulfoxide is greater than 150 mg/mL
• Preparation of a 100 mg/mL solution in dimethylsulfoxide is recommended

Stop Solution for TMB Substrates Thermo Scientific™

Stop Solution is 0.16M sulfuric acid for use with the ELISA substrate 3,3’,5,5’ - tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). In the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme conjugates, TMB and peroxide react to produce a blue byproduct having maximum absorbance at 605nm. The color intensity is proportional to the amount of HRP activity, which in turn is related to the levels of target analyte in an optimized ELISA procedure. Addition of sulfuric acid stop solution changes the color to yellow (absorbance maximum at 450nm), stabilizing the color development to enable accurate measurement of the intensity at 450nm using a spectrophotometer or plate reader.

Features of Stop Solution:

Size: 55 mL (sufficient for about five 96-well microplates)
Storage: Shipped at ambient temperature. Store at room temperature or 2-8°C.
Application: ELISA: Following TMB incubation, add an amount of stop solution equal to the amount of TMB substrate added to each well of the ELISA plate (typically 50–100 µL per well). Use at full strength.

X-Gal Invitrogen™

X-Gal (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactoside) is a histochemical substrate for β-galactosidase. This substrate yields a blue precipitate upon hydrolysis, making it suitable for use in immunoblotting or immunocytochemical assays. Bacteria containing active β-galactosidase produce blue colonies when grown on plates containing X-Gal. X-Gal is supplied as white crystals and is soluble in dimethylformamide.

DTT (dithiothreitol) Thermo Scientific™

Thermo Scientific DTT (DL-Dithiothreitol; Clelands reagent) is used to stabilize enzymes and other proteins, which possess free sulfhydryl groups. It has been shown to restore activity lost by oxidation of these groups in vitro. DTT quantitatively reduces disulfide bonds and maintains monothiols in a reduced state (see Reference 1).

At a final 0.1 M concentration, DTT is also widely used for disruption of protein disulfide bonds in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Highlights

• Free of endo-, exodeoxyribonucleases, ribonucleases, and phosphatases.

Applications

• Enzyme stabilization
• Enzymatic reactions
• Protein electrophoresis

Note
• DTT is not stable in solution. Only freshly-made DTT solutions should be used. To prepare a 1 M DTT solution, dissolve 1.55 g of DTT powder in 10 mL of deionized water (e.g. Water, nuclease-free, #R0581).

X-Gal Solution, ready-to-use Thermo Scientific™

Thermo Scientific X-Gal (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galacto-pyranoside) is an inert chromogenic substrate for beta-galactosidase which hydrolyzes X-Gal into colorless galactose and 4-chloro-3-brom-indigo, forming an intense blue precipitate. Induction of the lacZ gene with IPTG leads to the hydrolysis of X-Gal and to the development of blue colonies (see Supporting data).

X-Gal Solution, ready-to-use, is stable, 0.22 µm membrane filtered solution formulated for direct use in conjunction with IPTG for blue/white colony screening.

Applications

• Blue/white colony screening to distinguish recombinant (white) from non-recombinant (blue) colonies
• Visualization of beta-galactosidase reporter gene expression in transfected eukaryotic cells
• Detection of beta-galactosidase activity in immunological and histochemical procedures

Related Products
X-Gal

Tris/EDTA Thermo Scientific™

Thermo Scientific Pierce Tris-EDTA (TE) Solution is a sterile buffer (pH 8.0) prepared from highly purified reagents and free of DNase activity for DNA purification and storage.

Features of Thermo Scientific Pierce Tris-EDTA (TE) Solution:

• Prepared with the finest grade chemicals in specially purified water treated to remove particulates, salts, dissolved trace metals, organic compounds and microorganisms
• Autoclave-sterilized and free of DNase contamination
• Formulation: 10mM Tris, 1 mM EDTA pH 8.0
• Volume: 1 L

CML Latex Beads, 4% w/v, 0.04 µm Invitrogen™

Microspheres (also called latex beads or latex particles) are spherical particles in the colloidal size range that are formed from an amorphous polymer such as polystyrene. Because of the way that the polystyrene chains arrange themselves in the bead, the surface is very hydrophobic in character, making these ideal materials for the adsorption of materials such as proteins.

These carboxylate modified (CML) latex particles are produced by copolymerizing carboxylic acid containing polymers. The result is a latex polymer particle with a highly charged, relatively hydrophilic and somewhat 'fluffy' surface layer. The CML particles are electrosterically stabilized, and are therefore safe in concentrations of electrolyte up to 1M univalent salt. CML modified latex particles are negatively charged with a surface which has a polyelectrolyte character. It is only when the pH is ~10 that all the carboxyl groups are ionized. This is a hydrophilic latex.

Microspheres Are Available in Many Sizes and Surface Functionalities
25 sizes to choose from—0.02 microns to 16 microns
20 different surface—for ready conjugation to virtually any material
Surfactant free—ultraclean
Various quantities—from milliliter to 500-liter amounts

Key Applications of Microspheres
Instrument calibration (flow cytometry, microscopy, HTS, HCS)
Flow testing (microfluidics, blood flow, water flow, and air flow)
Cell biology tracers (cell differentiation and cell tracing)
Immunoassays (agglutination tests, ELISA, particle capture, and contrast reagents)

Get More Information
Read a technical overview of microspheres and find out about high activity beads, super active beads, specialty beads, and review bead-coupling protocols on the IDC Surfactant-free Latex Beads application page.

We’ll Make a Custom Microsphere Product for You
If you don’t see the microsphere you’re looking for in our stocked list, we’ll make a custom microsphere for you. Our custom conjugation service is efficient and confidential, and we guarantee the quality of our work. We are ISO 9001:2000 certified.

For Research Use Only. Not intended for animal or human therapeutic or diagnostic use.

Pierce™ D-Luciferin, Monosodium Salt Thermo Scientific™

Thermo Scientific Pierce D-Luciferin, Monopotassium Salt is formulated at greater than 99% purity to provide convenience and high performance at a low cost in reporter assays involving firefly luciferase.

Features of D-Luciferin, Monopotassium Salt:

• Molecular mass = 318.42 g/mol
• High purity, typically greater than 99.7%, as verified by HPLC and FTIR
• Great performance with in vitro applications
• Suitable for in vivo imaging

Luciferin is the substrate for bioluminescence reactions with firefly luciferase enzyme. Lyophilized potassium salt of firefly luciferin is stable and easily soluble, and is compatible with a wide variety of luciferase-based in vivo imaging and in vitro bioluminescent assays. Applications include ATP assays, gene reporter assays, high-throughput sequencing and various contamination assays throughout the biotechnology field. For in vivo imaging, the injection of luciferin in model systems enables real-time, non-invasive monitoring of disease progression and/or drug efficacy through bioluminescence.

Applications:
• Gene reporter assays
• ATP assays
• High throughput sequencing
• Contamination assays
• Bioluminescent in vivo imaging
• Drug screening
• Multiplexed assays to study off-target effects
• Signal transduction pathway analysis

Related Products
Pierce™ D-Luciferin, Monosodium Salt

APO-BrdU™ TUNEL Assay Kit, with Alexa Fluor™ 488 Anti-BrdU Invitrogen™

In collaboration with Phoenix Flow Systems, we offer the APO™-BrdU TUNEL Assay Kit which provides all the materials necessary to label and detect the DNA strand breaks of apoptotic cells. When DNA strands are cleaved or nicked by nucleases, a large number of 3´hydroxyl ends are exposed. In the APO-BrdU assay, these ends are labeled with BrdUTP and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) using the TUNEL technique. Once incorporated ino the DNA, BrdU is detected using a bright and photostable green-fluorescent Alexa Fluor™ 488 dye-labeled anti-BrdU antibody.

View a selection guide for all apoptosis assays for flow cytometry.

Agarose II (Low Melt) Thermo Scientific™

Thermo Scientific Pierce Agaroses are highly purified and carefully blended formulations of regular- or low-melting agarose that provide uniform lot-to-lot consistency for preparation of electrophoresis gels.

Features:

• A low temperature agarose for special applications requiring a lower melting temperature
• Optimal for 'in-gel' restriction digestion/ligation and DNA recovery
• At 1%, forms a very manageable clear gel that provides excellent resolution and melting characteristics
• Melts at approximately 65°C and remains fluid at 37°C for at least 24 hours, providing an excellent matrix for enzymatic manipulation of samples

Related Products
Agarose I (Molecular Biology Grade)

Aldehyde/Sulfate Latex Beads, 4% w/v, 4 µm Invitrogen™

Microspheres (also called latex beads or latex particles) are spherical particles in the colloidal size range that are formed from an amorphous polymer such as polystyrene. Because of the way that the polystyrene chains arrange themselves in the bead, the surface is very hydrophobic in character, making these ideal materials for the adsorption of materials such as proteins.

This aldehyde/sulfate latex contains an abundance of aldehyde groups grafted to the surface of the polymer particle. The high density of aldehyde groups enables facile coupling of proteins and other materials to the latex particles in a one-step process. The sulfate charge groups on the microspheres enable retention of stability during the covalent coupling process. Due to the high density of polar groups, this latex has a hydrophilic surface.

Microspheres Are Available in Many Sizes and Surface Functionalities
25 sizes to choose from—0.02 microns to 16 microns
20 different surface—for ready conjugation to virtually any material
Surfactant free—ultraclean
Various quantities—from milliliter to 500-liter amounts

Key Applications of Microspheres
Instrument calibration (flow cytometry, microscopy, HTS, HCS)
Flow testing (microfluidics, blood flow, water flow, and air flow)
Cell biology tracers (cell differentiation and cell tracing)
Immunoassays (agglutination tests, ELISA, particle capture, and contrast reagents)

Get More Information
Read a technical overview of microspheres and find out about high activity beads, super active beads, specialty beads, and review bead-coupling protocols on the IDC Surfactant-free Latex Beads application page.

We’ll Make a Custom Microsphere Product for You
If you don’t see the microsphere you’re looking for in our stocked list, we’ll make a custom microsphere for you. Our custom conjugation service is efficient and confidential, and we guarantee the quality of our work. We are ISO 9001:2000 certified.

For Research Use Only. Not intended for animal or human therapeutic or diagnostic use.
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