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IPL-41 Insect Medium (1X) Gibco™

Gibco® IPL-41 Insect Medium was originally designed for the growth of Spodeptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells and the expression of recombinant Autographa Californica Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (rAcNPV) using the Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS). We offer a variety of Gibco® Media options for a range of insect cell culture applications.

This IPL-41 Insect Medium is modified as follows:

WithWithout
• L-glutamine • Tryptose phosphate broth
• Sodium bicarbonate • Yeastolate

The complete formulation is available. IPL-41 Insect Medium contains unique components required for insect cell culture, including malic acid, fumaric acid, and alpha-ketoglutaric acid.

Product Use
For Research Use Only: Not intended for animal or human diagnostic or therapeutic use.

Dual Site cGMP Manufacturing and Quality System
Gibco® IPL-41 Insect Medium is manufactured at a cGMP compliant facility, located in Grand Island, New York. The facility is registered with the FDA as a medical device manufacturer and is certified to ISO 13485 standards. For supply chain continuity, we offer a comparable Gibco® IPL-41 Insect Medium product made in our Scotland facility (11405-057). This facility is registered with the FDA as a medical device manufacturer and is certified to the ISO 13485 standard.

Gibco® IPL-41 Insect Medium is commonly supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) before use. IPL-41 Insect Medium requires ambient CO2in order to maintain physiological pH.

Sf-900™ III SFM Gibco™

Sf-900™ III SFM is a low-hydrolysate, serum-free, protein-free, animal origin–free insect cell culture medium optimized for the growth and maintenance of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9 and Sf21) cells and for recombinant gene expression using the baculovirus and stable insect expression systems. This medium is suitable for suspension and monolayer culture methods and supports growth of other lepidopteran cell lines. Features of Gibco® Sf-900™ III SFM:

• Superior long-term, high-density growth
• Optimized for recombinant protein production
• Serum-free, protein-free, animal origin–free, ready-to-use formulation
• Improved lot-to-lot consistency

Superior long-term, high-density growth
Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells grown in Sf-900™ III SFM achieve maximum cell densities of 10 to 14 × 106 cells/mL, a significant improvement over Sf-900™ II SFM and other commercially available serum-free media (see figure).

Optimized for recombinant protein production
Traditionally, Grace's medium supplemented with 10% FBS has been used for recombinant protein expression. Sf-900™ III SFM is an improved serum-free, protein-free, animal origin–free medium designed for growth of Sf9 and other lepidopteran cell lines and production of insect viruses and recombinant proteins.

Serum-free, protein-free, animal origin–free, ready-to-use formulation
Gibco® Sf-900™ III SFM is a serum-free, protein-free, animal origin–free medium that allows for much easier purification of your protein of interest. Sf-900™ III SFM is ready to use; it does not require addition of serum, glutamine, or surfactants. Cells adapted to other commercially available serum-free media should be sequentially adapted into Sf-900™ III SFM (see product manual for details).

Improved lot-to-lot consistency
Gibco® Sf-900™ III SFM contains reduced hydrolysate concentrations, improving lot-to-lot consistency over Sf-900™ II SFM (see figure).

cGMP manufacturing and quality system
Gibco® Sf-900 II SFM is manufactured at a cGMP-compliant facility located in Grand Island, New York. The facility is registered with the FDA as a medical device manufacturer and is certified to ISO 13485 standards.

Grace's Insect Medium (2X), supplemented Gibco™

Grace's Supplemented Insect Medium was originally designed for the growth of cells from the Australian Emperor Gum Moth, Antherea eucalypti. Grace's Supplemented Insect Medium is now widely used for the growth of Spodeptera frugiperda cells, Sf9 and Sf21. Sf9 and Sf21 cells are routinely used to express recombinant protein using the Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS). This 2x formulation is intended for use in the agarose overlay when performing the plaque assay. We offer a variety of Gibco® Media options for a range of insect cell culture applications.

This Grace's Insect Medium is modified as follows:

With
• Lactalbumin hydrolysate
• Yeastolate
• L-glutamine
• Sodium bicarbonate

The complete formulation is available. Grace's Supplemented Insect Medium, 2x contains lactalbumin hydrolysate and yeastolate not commonly found in the unsupplemented version.

Product Use
For Research Use Only: Not intended for animal or human diagnostic or therapeutic use.

cGMP Manufacturing and Quality System
Gibco® Grace's Supplemented Insect Medium, 2x is manufactured at a cGMP compliant facility located in Grand Island, New York. The facility is registered with the FDA as a medical device manufacturer and is certified to ISO 13485 standards.

Grace's Supplemented Insect Medium, 2x contains lactalbumin hydrolysate and yeastolate, and is commonly diluted with sterile water, Fetal bovine Serum and agarose before use in the agarose overlay, as described in the product manual.

One Shot™ TOP10 Chemically Competent E. coli Invitrogen™

One Shot® TOP10 Chemically Competent E. coli are provided at a transformation efficiency of 1 x 109 cfu/µg plasmid DNA and are ideal for high-efficiency cloning and plasmid propagation. They allow stable replication of high-copy number plasmids and are the same competent cells that come with many of our cloning kits. One Shot® TOP10 cells:

• Maximize cloning efficiency in a single-tube format
• Provide enhanced genomic DNA cloning capabilities

Easy-to-use One Shot® format
The single-tube, single-use format allows for all steps of the transformation protocol, up to plating, to take place in the same tube, thereby helping to save time and to prevent contamination.

Versatile cloning capabilities
One Shot® TOP10 E. coli cells are similar to the DH10B™ strain, and offer the following features:

• hsdR for efficient transformation of unmethylated DNA from PCR amplifications
• mcrA for efficient transformation of methylated DNA from genomic preparations
• lacZΔM15 for blue/white color screening of recombinant clones
• endA1 for cleaner DNA preparations and better results in downstream applications due to elimination of nonspecific digestion by Endonuclease I
• recA1 for reduced occurrence of nonspecific recombination in cloned DNA

Genotype: F- mcrA Δ( mrr-hsdRMS-mcrBC) Φ80lacZΔM15 Δ lacX74 recA1 araD139 Δ( araleu)7697 galU galK rpsL (StrR) endA1 nupG

Find the strain and format that you need
We also offer many other different strains and formats of chemically competent cells and electrocompetent cells to help meet your specific transformation needs. If you require high-throughput transformation, choose from our collection of MultiShot™ formatted comp cells.

CD Hybridoma AGT™ Medium Gibco™

Gibco® CD Hybridoma Medium is an animal origin-free, chemically-defined, protein-free medium specifically developed for the ability to support the growth of hybridomas for antibody production. Gibco® CD Hybridoma Medium features:
• Ability to support suspension and stationary hybridomas and myelomas
• Formulated without L-glutamine for stability
• Animal origin-free, protein-free and chemically defined formulation
• Convenient, easy-to-use Advanced Granulation Technology (AGT™) format

Ability to support suspension and stationary hybridomas and myelomas
Suitable for the culture of recombinant myeloma lines as well as traditional hybridomas, Gibco® CD Hybridoma Medium provides high cell densities and IgG production. Cholesterol-dependent cultures such as NS0 require the addition of 250x Cholesterol Lipid Concentrate.

Formulated without L-glutamine for stability
Gibco® CD Hybridoma Medium requires the addition of 8 mM L-glutamine or GlutaMAX™ supplement before use. GlutaMAX™ supplement minimizes toxic ammonia build-up and improves cell viability and growth in an easy-to-use format.

Animal origin-free, protein-free and chemically defined formulation
Gibco® CD Hybridoma Medium is animal origin-free, protein-free and chemically defined, allowing for easier purification of your protein of interest. Gibco® chemically defined media contain no proteins, hydrolysates or components of unknown composition.

Convenient, easy-to-use Advanced Granulation Technology (AGT™) format
Our Advanced Granulation Technology™ (AGT™) format is an easy-to-use dry powder format. The granules dissolve instantly and pH-adjusts for fast media preparation. Complete reconstitution instructions are available in the product manual.

Product Use
For research use/further cell culture manufacturing. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Customers using Gibco® CD Hybridoma Medium in a manufacturing process, who have a submission with the FDA, may request a letter of authorization from us to reference our Type II Drug Master File (DMF).

cGMP Manufacturing and Quality System
Gibco® CD Hybridoma Medium is manufactured at a cGMP compliant facility located in Grand Island, New York. The facility is registered with the FDA as a medical device manufacturer and is certified to ISO 13485 standards.

CD Hybridoma AGT™ Medium Gibco™

Gibco® CD Hybridoma Medium is an animal origin-free, chemically-defined, protein-free medium specifically developed for the ability to support the growth of hybridomas for antibody production. Gibco® CD Hybridoma Medium features:
• Ability to support suspension and stationary hybridomas and myelomas
• Formulated without L-glutamine for stability
• Animal origin-free, protein-free and chemically defined formulation
• Convenient, easy-to-use Advanced Granulation Technology (AGT™) format

Ability to support suspension and stationary hybridomas and myelomas
Suitable for the culture of recombinant myeloma lines as well as traditional hybridomas, Gibco® CD Hybridoma Medium provides high cell densities and IgG production. Cholesterol-dependent cultures such as NS0 require the addition of 250x Cholesterol Lipid Concentrate.

Formulated without L-glutamine for stability
Gibco® CD Hybridoma Medium requires the addition of 8 mM L-glutamine or GlutaMAX™ supplement before use. GlutaMAX™ supplement minimizes toxic ammonia build-up and improves cell viability and growth in an easy-to-use format.

Animal origin-free, protein-free and chemically defined formulation
Gibco® CD Hybridoma Medium is animal origin-free, protein-free and chemically defined, allowing for easier purification of your protein of interest. Gibco® chemically defined media contain no proteins, hydrolysates or components of unknown composition.

Convenient, easy-to-use Advanced Granulation Technology (AGT™) format
Our Advanced Granulation Technology™ (AGT™) format is an easy-to-use dry powder format. The granules dissolve instantly and pH-adjusts for fast media preparation. Complete reconstitution instructions are available in the product manual below.

Product Use
For research use/further cell culture manufacturing. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Customers using Gibco® CD Hybridoma Medium in a manufacturing process, who have a submission with the FDA, may request a letter of authorization from us to reference our Type II Drug Master File (DMF).

cGMP Manufacturing and Quality System
Gibco® CD Hybridoma Medium is manufactured at a cGMP compliant facility located in Grand Island, New York. The facility is registered with the FDA as a medical device manufacturer and is certified to ISO 13485 standards.

MultiShot™ FlexPlate Stbl3™ Competent Cells Invitrogen™

MultiShot FlexPlate Stbl3 chemically competent E. coli cells are cloning competent cells that are packaged in a rack containing 12 strips of 8 wells to increase productivity for medium-throughput bacterial transformations. MultiShot FlexPlate Stbl3 competent E. coli cells are designed especially for cloning direct repeats found in lentiviral expression vectors. Unlike TOP10 E. coli, these cells reduce the frequency of homologous recombination of long terminal repeats (LTRs) found in ViraPower Lentiviral Expression vectors and other retroviral vectors. The DNA yield from Stbl3 cells is often >10-fold higher than alternative strains such as TOP10 (see table).

Reduce unwanted recombination with Stbl3 cells
MultiShot FlexPlate Stbl3 Competent Cells are derived from the HB101 E. coli strain and are recommended for use when cloning unstable inserts such as lentiviral DNA containing direct repeats (e.g., ViraPower Lentiviral Expression kits). The transformation efficiency of these cells is greater than 1 × 107 cfu/µg plasmid DNA.

Key features of the MultiShot FlexPlate Stbl3 Competent Cells include:
Optimal performance for the propagation of lentiviral vectors
mcrB, mrr for enhanced genomic cloning capacity
recA13 for reduced occurrence of non-specific recombination in cloned DNA
High DNA yields

MultiShot FlexWell format—increase transformation productivity
The FlexPlate is a 96-well PCR plate that can be used in automated liquid handling systems or divided into any combination of 8-well segments for flexibility in transformation throughput. Addition of DNA to MultiShot FlexPlate Competent Cells can be done quickly with a multichannel pipet or a liquid handling system. After addition of DNA, the cells can be transformed efficiently by heat-shock using a water bath, heat block, or thermal cycler.

Key features of the MultiShot FlexPlate format include:
Increase throughput—compatible with automated liquid handling platforms
Flexible—transform in increments of 8 wells to entire 96-well plate
Convenient—competent cells pre-aliquoted into 96-well plate, ready for transformation

Genotype: F-mcrB mrr hsdS20(rB-, mB-) recA13 supE44 ara-14 galK2 lacY1 proA2 rpsL20(StrR) xyl-5 λ- leu mtl-1

Find the strain and format that you need
We offer many other E. coli strains and formats of chemically competent cells and electrocompetent cells to help meet your specific transformation needs. If you require other high-throughput transformation options, choose from our collection of MultiShot formatted comp cells or email us for custom formatting options.

One Shot™ OmniMAX™ 2 T1R Chemically Competent E. coli Invitrogen™

The One Shot® OmniMAX™ 2 T1R E. coli strain is an improved chemically competent cell line, perfect for use in all cloning applications, including the Gateway® technology. OmniMAX™ 2 T1R cells offer the highest transformation efficiency of any chemically competent cells in a One Shot® format, with >5 x 109 transformants/µg pUC19. They also provide efficient transformation of highly methylated DNA, since OmniMAX™ 2 T1R cells lack the E. coli K12 restriction systems (mcrA Δ(mrr hsdRMS-mcrBC)). In addition, the strain carries the tonA genotype, which confers resistance to T1 and T5 phage infection. This protects your samples and minimizes the possibility of downtime in your lab due to phage contamination. The highly versatile OmniMAX™ 2 T1R strain offers the following benefits:

• Ideal for transformation of Gateway® and TOPO® reactions
• Resistance to T1 and T5 phage (tonA)
• Construction of more representative genomic libraries due to the elimination of mcrA, mcrBC, mrr, and hsdRMS
• Blue/white screening of recombinant clones (lacZΔM15)

Genotype: F´ {proAB lacIq lacZΔM15 Tn10(TetR ) Δ(ccdAB)} mcrA Δ(mrr hsdRMS-mcrBC) Φ 80(lacZ)ΔM15 Δ(lacZYA-argF)U169 endA1 recA1 supE44 thi-1 gyrA96 relA1 tonA panD

Tali™ Calibration Beads Invitrogen™

This product contains three tubes of beads which are used to properly calibrate and align the Tali® Image-Based Cytometer.

Contents:

• Tali® Alignment Beads,
• Tali® Green Calibration Beads
• Tali® Red Calibration Beads

The calibration function of the Tali® Image-Based Cytometer recalculates the dynamic range and checks the alignment of the camera. Proper alignment and calibration of the Tali® Image-Based Cytometer ensures optimal performance of the instrument. It is recommended that alignment and calibration be performed every three months.

MultiShot™ StripWell Stbl3™ Competent Cells Invitrogen™

MultiShot StripWell Stbl3 chemically competent E. coli cells are cloning competent cells that are pre-aliquoted in a rack containing 12 strips of 8 wells to increase productivity for medium-throughput bacterial transformations. MultiShot StripWell Stbl3 competent E. coli cells are designed especially for cloning direct repeats found in lentiviral expression vectors. Unlike TOP10 E. coli, these cells reduce the frequency of homologous recombination of long terminal repeats (LTRs) found in ViraPower Lentiviral Expression vectors and other retroviral vectors. The DNA yield from Stbl3 cells is often >10-fold higher than alternative strains such as TOP10 (see table).

Reduce unwanted recombination with Stbl3 cells
MultiShot StripWell Stbl3 Competent Cells are derived from the HB101 E. coli strain and are recommended for use when cloning unstable inserts such as lentiviral DNA containing direct repeats (e.g., ViraPower Lentiviral Expression kits). The transformation efficiency of MultiShot StripWell Stbl3 Competent Cells is greater than 1 × 107 cfu/µg plasmid DNA.

Key features of the Stbl3 Competent Cells include:
Optimal performance for the propagation of lentiviral vectors
mcrB, mrr for enhanced genomic cloning capacity
recA13 for reduced occurrence of non-specific recombination in cloned DNA
High DNA yields

MultiShot StripWell format—flexible for no waste
Each StripWell of eight connected tubes is designed with the same single-tube, single-use features as our One Shot format tubes. This format allows for all steps of the transformation protocol, up to plating, to take place in the same tube, thereby saving time and to preventing contamination. After addition of DNA, MultiShot StripWell Competent Cells can be transformed by heat-shock at 42°C using a water bath, all in the same tube.

The StripWell tubes can be cut to permit transformations in a single tube, eliminating wasted aliquots of cells and avoiding freeze-thaws that can result in reduced transformation efficiency.

Key features of the MultiShot StripWell format include:
Increase productivity—for medium throughput experimentation
Maximal flexibility—transform as few as 1 tube and as many as 96 from the StripWell rack
Familiar convenience—no aliquotting, add DNA directly to cells, heat shock, and recover in the same tube
Peace of mind—single-use transformation minimizes contamination

Genotype: F-mcrB mrr hsdS20(rB-, mB-) recA13 supE44 ara-14 galK2 lacY1 proA2 rpsL20(StrR) xyl-5 λ- leu mtl-1

Find the strain and format that you need
We offer many other E. coli strains and formats of chemically competent cells and electrocompetent cells to help meet your specific transformation needs. If you require other high-throughput transformation options, choose from our collection of MultiShot formatted comp cells or email us for custom formatting options.

Sf21 cells in Sf-900™ III SFM Gibco™

Gibco® Sf21 cells are commonly used to isolate and propagate recombinant baculoviral stocks and to produce recombinant proteins. Gibco® Sf21 cells are adapted to serum-free suspension culture in Gibco® Sf-900™ III SFM, which saves significant time and expense associated with the adaptation of cultures. Gibco® Sf21 cells (frozen in Gibco® Sf-900™ III SFM) feature:
• Recombinant protein expression from a variety of expression systems
• Good growth in adherent or suspension culture
• Quality and performance testing

Recombinant protein expression from a variety of expression systems
High levels of protein expression in Sf21 cells can be obtained using either the BaculoDirect™ Baculovirus Expression System, the Bac-to-Bac® Baculovirus Expression System, or the InsectDirect® Expression System.

Good growth in adherent or suspension culture
Each vial containing 1 × 107 cells can be thawed directly into suspension or adherent culture. Protocols for adherent and suspension growth in Gibco® Sf-900™ III SFM are available in the product manual. Cultures can easily be transferred between the two conditions for ease of workflow but we recommend the stock cultures are maintained in suspension.

Quality and performance testing
Each lot of Gibco® Sf21 cells is tested for cell growth and viability post-recovery from cryopreservation.

Product Use
For Research Use Only. Not for any animal or human therapeutic or diagnostic use. Caution: Handle as potentially biohazardous material under at least Biosafety Level 2 containment. This product contains Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), a hazardous material. Review the Material Safety Data Sheet before handling.

MC1061/P3 Chemically Competent E. coli Invitrogen™

MC1061/P3 Chemically Competent E. coli are used for highly efficient transformation of vectors that require the P3 episome for selection and maintenance (i.e., pCDM8, pcDNA™1.1, or any other supF-containing vector).

Contents
• 5 x 300 μL competent MC1061/P3 E. coli
• 50 µL pUC19 plasmid DNA (10 pg/μL in 5 mM Tris-HCl, 0.5 mM EDTA, pH 8)
• 15 mL SOC medium

MultiShot™ FlexPlate OmniMAX™ 2 T1R Competent Cells Invitrogen™

MultiShot FlexPlate OmniMAX 2 T1R chemically competent E. coli cells are a superior strain of cloning competent cells that are pre-aliquoted in a 96-well PCR plate to increase transformation productivity. The FlexPlate format can be divided down to any combination of 8-well segments for flexibility in transformation throughput.

All of our T1R strains have the tonA (fhuA) deletion in their genotype that confers resistance to T1 and T5 phage. T1 bacteriophage spread rapidly and lyse E. coli hosts, which are commonly used for cloning and library construction. A resistant genotype offers added security to protect valuable clones and libraries. This is especially important for genome and sequencing centers where T1 phage infection would be catastrophic.

Abundance of colonies with OmniMAX 2 T1R cloning capabilities
MultiShot FlexPlate OmniMAX 2 T1R cells are an improved chemically competent E. coli cell line, perfect for use in all cloning applications, including Gateway cloning, and provide transformation efficiencies in the MultiShot FlexPlate format of >5 x 108 cfu/µg with control plasmid DNA. These cells also provide efficient transformation of highly methylated DNA, since OmniMAX 2 T1R cells lack the E. coli K-12 restriction systems (mcrA Δ(mrr hsdRMS-mcrBC)).

Key features of the MultiShot FlexPlate OmniMAX 2 T1R Competent Cells include:
Δ(ccdAB) for sensitivity to the toxic effects of the ccdB gene product, allowing negative selection of vectors containing the ccdB gene—ideal for transformation of Gateway and TOPO reactions
mcrA, mcrBC, mrr, and hsdRMS elimination of restriction systems to allow construction of more representative genomic constructs
tonA (fhuA) genotype to confer resistance to T1 and T5 phage
Highest transformation efficiency in FlexWell format (>5x108 cfu/µg control DNA)
endA1 for increased plasmid yield and quantity
recA1 for reduced occurrence of non-specific recombination in cloned DNA
lacZΔM15 for blue/white color screening of recombinant clones

MultiShot FlexWell format—increase transformation productivity
The FlexPlate is a 96-well PCR plate that can be used in automated liquid handling systems or divided into any combination of 8-well segments for flexibility in transformation throughput. Addition of DNA to the MultiShot FlexPlate Competent Cells can be done quickly with a multichannel pipet or a liquid handling system. After addition of DNA, the cells can be transformed efficiently by heat-shock using a water bath, heat block, or thermal cycler.

Key features of the MultiShot FlexPlate format include:
Increase throughput—compatible with automated liquid handling platforms
Flexible—transform in increments of 8 wells to entire 96-well plate
Convenient—competent cells pre-aliquoted into 96-well plate, ready for transformation

Genotype: F´ {proAB lacIq lacZΔM15 Tn10(TetR ) Δ(ccdAB)} mcrA Δ(mrr hsdRMS-mcrBC) Φ 80(lacZ)ΔM15 Δ(lacZYA-argF)U169 endA1 recA1 supE44 thi-1 gyrA96 relA1 tonA panD

Find the strain and format that you need
We offer many other E. coli strains and formats of chemically competent cells and electrocompetent cells to help meet your specific transformation needs. If you require other high-throughput transformation options, choose from our collection of MultiShot formatted comp cells or email us for custom formatting options.

MAX Efficiency™ DH10B Competent Cells Invitrogen™

MAX Efficiency DH10B Competent Cells are highly efficient E. coli, perfect for most applications. DH10B E. coli are available in both electrocompetent and chemically competent formats. The high transformation efficiency makes them ideal for generating cDNA or genomic libraries. High-efficiency transformation is seen with plasmids 150 kb in size. The versatile DH10B genotype has the following features:

lacZ for blue/white screening of recombinant clones
• Elimination of mcrA, mcrBC, mrr, and hsdRMS restriction systems to allow construction of more representative genomic libraries
• A1 mutation to increase plasmid yield and quantity

Medium NCTC-109 (1X) Gibco™

NCTC-109 medium is a chemically defined medium that was originally developed by the National Cancer Institute and formulated for the culture of mouse Strain L sublines, NCTC clone 929 (L929 cells) in a serum-free environment. Gibco® NCTC-109 medium is also suitable for generating and maintaining hybridoma cells.
This NCTC-109 is modified as follows:
WithWithout
• Phenol Red• L-glutamine
• Coenzymes• HEPES

The complete formulation is available.

Gibco® NCTC-109 medium is rich in nucleosides, vitamins, coenzymes, reducing agents and other unique ingredients.

Product Intended Use
For in vitro diagnostic use. CAUTION: Not for human or animal therapeutic use. Uses other than the labeled intended use may be a violation of local law.

cGMP Manufacturing and Quality System
Gibco® NCTC-109 medium is manufactured at a cGMP compliant facility, located in Grand Island, New York. The facility is registered with the FDA as a medical device manufacturer and is certified to ISO 13485 standards. For supply chain continuity, we offer an identical Gibco® NCTC-109 product made in our Scotland facility (21340-054). This facility is registered with the FDA as a medical device manufacturer and is certified to the ISO 13485 standard.

NCTC-109 contains no proteins, lipids, or growth factors. NCTC-109 medium typically requires supplementation of a growth factor cocktail (for serum free growth) or Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS). NCTC-109 medium uses a sodium bicarbonate buffer system (2.2 g/L) and therefore requires a 5-10% CO2 environment to maintain physiological pH.
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