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phiX174 RF1 DNA (Thermo Scientific™)

Thermo Scientific phiX174 was the first DNA virus discovered to have a single-stranded, circular genome. phiX174 DNA is 5386 nt in length. The DNA strand packaged into the virion is termed the “plus” strand. After entering the cell, the Thermo Scientific phiX174 DNA is used as a template for minus-strand synthesis, producing double-stranded DNA. The conversion of plus DNA strands to double-stranded DNA does not require any of the phage genes to function.

The double-stranded DNA can then be transcribed, resulting in synthesis of phage-encoded proteins. Synthesis of single-stranded (plus) DNA requires phage-encoded gene A protein. DNA synthesis is initiated at ori (+) and proceeds in the direction indicated. Late in infection, the single-stranded circles are encapsidated into new virions. The cycle terminates by cellular lysis, mediated by phage gene E encoded protein.

Highlights

• Purified by chromatography using proprietary patented technology
• More than 90% in the supercoiled form
• Isolated from E. coli HF4704 infected with phiX174 am3

Applications

• Preparation of DNA molecular weight standards

GenBank/EMBL Accession Numbers
V01128, J02482, M10348, M10379, M10714, M10749, M10750, M10866, M10867, M24859

phiX174 plasmid usage notes:

For DNA sequence, sequence analysis and map creation, see the REviewer free online tool

ZipRuler Express DNA Ladder Set, ready-to-use (Thermo Scientific™)

Thermo Scientific ZipRuler Express DNA Ladder Set contains two ladders: ZipRuler Express DNA Ladder 1 and ZipRuler Express DNA Ladder 2. Both are mixtures of chromatography-purified individual DNA fragments.The set is designed for fast and highly accurate sizing of a broad range (100-20,000 bp) of DNA fragments and their approximate quantification under a variety of electrophoresis conditions. The band pattern is not affected by the composition of electrophoresis buffer, voltage or gel percentage (see Table 1).

Highlights

• Flexible—can be run in two lanes or combined in one lane
• Composed of chromatography purified individual DNA fragments
• Ready-to-use—premixed with a loading dye for direct loading and room temperature storage
• Supplied with loading dye for sample DNA

Features
• For fast separation, the ZipRuler Express DNA Ladder 1 and 2 are loaded into two different wells in the same gel to evaluate a wide range of DNA bands during short electrophoresis runs. For longer runs, equal amounts of both ladders are loaded into the same gel well. Three reference bands will then be formed during electrophoresis of the mixed ZipRuler ladder. Longer electrophoresis run times are needed to achieve full separation of complex ladder.

ZipRuler Express DNA Ladder 1 is premixed with the 6X Orange DNA Loading Dye (orange G and xylene cyanol), whereas ZipRuler Express DNA Ladder 2 is premixed with the 6X MassRuler DNA Loading Dye (bromophenol blue).

When both ladders are loaded in the same gel lane, the migration of DNA is monitored by three electrophoresis tracking dyes (bromophenol blue, xylene cyanol FF and orange G).

The set is supplied with 6X Orange DNA Loading Dye for sample DNA.

NoLimits 15 bp DNA Fragment (Thermo Scientific™)

Thermo Scientific NoLimits is a collection of 36 highly-purified individual DNA fragments ranging from 10 to 20,000 bp. Unlike other vendors, where custom standards are produced by PCR, Thermo Scientific NoLimits DNA fragments are produced using specifically designed plasmids purified by patented technology.Plasmid DNA, digested with Thermo Scientific Restriction Enzymes, is chromatography-purified to prepare the individual DNA fragments from the digestion mixture. The results are extremely pure DNA fragments, free of any truncated or degraded molecules. These custom DNA fragments are the best custom standards for applications ranging from electrophoresis (both gel and capillary) to HPLC and beyond.

Features

• Broad range: 10-20,000 bp
• Sharp peaks during capillary electrophoresis, sharp bands during gel electrophoresis
• Precise DNA concentration
• Chromatography-purified individual DNA fragments

Applications

• Gel electrophoresis
• Capillary electrophoresis
• DNA quantification
• HPLC analysis
• Applications where a custom DNA size standard is required.

MassRuler High Range DNA Ladder, ready-to-use (Thermo Scientific™)

Thermo Scientific MassRuler High Range DNA Ladder is specially designed for accurate quantification and sizing of DNA fragments by agarose gel electrophoresis. The intensity of the fragment in each ladder is calibrated against a standard that guarantees the precise quantity of each band. The ladders are mixtures of chromatography-purified, individual DNA fragments.

Highlights

• Accurate DNA sizing and quantification – DNA ladder fragments are quantified spectrophotometrically
• Sharp bands
• Easy-to-remember fragment sizes and quantities
• Ready-to-use—premixed with 6X MassRuler DNA Loading Dye for direct loading and room temperature storage
• Supplied with loading dye for sample DNA

High DNA Mass Ladder (Invitrogen™)

Invitrogen High DNA Mass Ladder is designed for sizing and approximate quantification of double-stranded DNA in the range of 1,000 bp to 10,000 bp. High DNA Mass Ladder consists of six individual chromatography-purified DNA fragments.

High DNA Mass Ladder is ideal for separation on 0.8–1% agarose gels.

Highlights of High DNA Mass Ladder:
Sharp, clear bands—chromatography purified fragments for consistent and reliable results
Convenient—provided with 10X BlueJuice Gel Loading Buffer for tracking of sample DNA migration
Precise—an exact amount of DNA in each band

Product use
The double-stranded DNA ladder can be visualized on 0.8–1% agarose gels after ethidium bromide or SYBR Safe staining. The ladder is designed with an equimolar amount of DNA in each band. An exact amount of DNA in each band allows approximate quantification of DNA samples.

phiX174 DNA/BsuRI (HaeIII) Marker (Thermo Scientific™)

Thermo Scientific phiX174 DNA is digested to completion with the appropriate Thermo Scientific restriction enzyme, then purified and dissolved in storage buffer. The DNA fragments contain blunt or sticky ends, depending on the restriction enzyme used for the markers preparation.

Thermo Scientific phiX174 DNA/BsuRI (HaeIII) Marker can be labeled radioactively with T4 Polynucleotide Kinase. Alternatively it can be labeled radioactively or non-radioactively with Klenow fragment or Klenow Fragment, exo- with the fill-in reaction, see protocols in Resources.

Highlights

• Sizing and approximate quantification of small DNA fragments
• Sharp bands
• Supplied with loading dye for sample DNA

Note
• Bands at 310, 281, and 271 bp form an anomalous pattern on polyacrylamide gels.
• The shortest fragments (oblique) are not visible in standard electrophoresis.
• Fragment lengths are predicted by computer analysis of the respective DNA sequences.

pUC19 DNA/MspI (HpaII) Marker, ready-to-use (Thermo Scientific™)

Thermo Scientific pUC19 DNA is digested to completion with the appropriate Thermo Scientific restriction enzyme, then purified and dissolved in storage buffer. The DNA fragments contain blunt or sticky ends, depending on the restriction enzyme used for the markers preparation. pUC19 DNA/MspI (HpaII) Marker, ready-to-use, is premixed with 6X DNA Loading Dye for direct loading onto agarose and polyacrylamide gels.

Highlights

• Sizing and approximate quantification of small DNA fragments
• Sharp bands
• Premixed with 6X DNA Loading Dye for direct loading and room temperature storage
• Supplied with loading dye for sample DNA

Note
• Bands at 501 bp and 498 bp form an anomalous pattern on polyacrylamide gels.
• The shortest fragments (oblique) are not visible in standard electrophoresis.
• Fragment lengths are predicted by computer analysis of the respective DNA sequences.

NoLimits 10 bp DNA Fragment (Thermo Scientific™)

Thermo Scientific NoLimits is a collection of 36 highly-purified individual DNA fragments ranging from 10 to 20,000 bp. Unlike other vendors, where custom standards are produced by PCR, Thermo Scientific NoLimits DNA fragments are produced using specifically designed plasmids purified by patented technology.

Plasmid DNA is digested with Thermo Scientific Restriction Enzymes, and the individual DNA fragments are chromatography-purified from the digestion mixture. As a result, we offer exceptionally pure DNA fragments that are free of any truncated or degraded molecules. Our custom DNA fragments are the best choice for applications, ranging from electrophoresis (both gel and capillary) to HPLC and beyond.

Highlights

• Broad range: 10-20,000 bp
• Sharp peaks during capillary electrophoresis
• Sharp bands during gel electrophoresis
• Precise DNA concentration
• Chromatography-purified individual DNA fragments

Applications

• Gel electrophoresis
• Capillary electrophoresis
• DNA quantification
• HPLC analysis
• Applications where a custom DNA size standard is required.

E-Gel™ 96 High Range DNA Marker (Invitrogen™)

Invitrogen E-Gel 96 High Range DNA Ladder is designed for sizing and approximate quantification of double-stranded DNA in the range of 400 bp to 10,000 bp. E-Gel 96 High Range DNA Ladder consists of five individual chromatography-purified DNA fragments.

E-Gel 96 High Range DNA Ladder is specifically formulated for optimal performance on pre-cast E-Gel agarose gels.

Highlights of E-Gel 96 High Range DNA Ladder:
Performance—optimal for use on E-Gel agarose gels
Sharp, clear bands—chromatography purified fragments for consistent and reliable results and stable at room temperature up to six months
Ready-to-use—premixed with loading buffer
Convenient—provided with 1X E-Gel Sample Loading Buffer
Precise—an exact amount of DNA in each band

Product use
The double-stranded DNA ladder can be visualized on 1% E-Gel agarose gels. The ladder is designed with a uniform intensity of DNA bands for a clear view of each band. An exact amount of DNA in each band allows approximate quantification of DNA samples.

MassRuler DNA Ladder Mix, ready-to-use (Thermo Scientific™)

Thermo Scientific MassRuler DNA Ladder Mix is specially designed for accurate quantification and sizing of DNA fragments by agarose gel electrophoresis. The intensity of the fragment in each ladder is calibrated against a standard that guarantees the precise quantity of each band. The ladders are mixtures of chromatography-purified, individual DNA fragments.

Highlights

• Accurate DNA sizing and quantification – DNA ladder fragments are quantified spectrophotometrically
• Sharp bands
• Easy-to-remember fragment sizes and quantities
• Ready-to-use—premixed with 6X MassRuler DNA Loading Dye for direct loading and room temperature storage
• Supplied with loading dye for sample DNA

NoLimits 4000 bp DNA Fragment (Thermo Scientific™)

Thermo Scientific NoLimits is a collection of 36 highly-purified individual DNA fragments ranging from 10 to 20,000 bp. Unlike other vendors, where custom standards are produced by PCR, Thermo Scientific NoLimits DNA fragments are produced using specifically designed plasmids purified by patented technology.Plasmid DNA, digested with Thermo Scientific Restriction Enzymes, is chromatography-purified to prepare the individual DNA fragments from the digestion mixture. The results are extremely pure DNA fragments, free of any truncated or degraded molecules. These custom DNA fragments are the best custom standards for applications ranging from electrophoresis (both gel and capillary) to HPLC and beyond.

Features

• Broad range: 10-20,000 bp
• Sharp peaks during capillary electrophoresis, sharp bands during gel electrophoresis
• Precise DNA concentration
• Chromatography-purified individual DNA fragments

Applications

• Gel electrophoresis
• Capillary electrophoresis
• DNA quantification
• HPLC analysis
• Applications where a custom DNA size standard is required.

NoLimits 200 bp DNA Fragment (Thermo Scientific™)

Thermo Scientific NoLimits is a collection of 36 highly-purified individual DNA fragments ranging from 10 to 20,000 bp. Unlike other vendors, where custom standards are produced by PCR, Thermo Scientific NoLimits DNA fragments are produced using specifically designed plasmids purified by patented technology.Plasmid DNA, digested with Thermo Scientific Restriction Enzymes, is chromatography-purified to prepare the individual DNA fragments from the digestion mixture. The results are extremely pure DNA fragments, free of any truncated or degraded molecules. These custom DNA fragments are the best custom standards for applications ranging from electrophoresis (both gel and capillary) to HPLC and beyond.

Features

• Broad range: 10-20,000 bp
• Sharp peaks during capillary electrophoresis, sharp bands during gel electrophoresis
• Precise DNA concentration
• Chromatography-purified individual DNA fragments

Applications

• Gel electrophoresis
• Capillary electrophoresis
• DNA quantification
• HPLC analysis
• Applications where a custom DNA size standard is required.

GeneRuler Low Range DNA Ladder (Thermo Scientific™)

Thermo Scientific GeneRuler Low Range DNA Ladder is recommended for sizing and approximate quantification of a double-stranded DNA in the range of 25 bp to 700 bp on agarose or polyacrylamide gels. The DNA ladder consists of 10 DNA fragments and is provided with 6X TriTrack DNA Loading Dye.

Highlights of Low Range DNA Ladder
Easy visualization—three-color tracking of DNA migration during electrophoresis with 6X TriTrack DNA Loading Dye (contains Xylene Cyanol FF, Bromophenol Blue, and Orange G)
Simplicity—one loading dye for a variety of samples
Sharp bands—clear results with mixtures of individual chromatography-purified DNA fragments

Product use
This double-stranded DNA ladder is compatible with 3% standard and precast agarose slab gels and can be visualized after ethidium bromide or SYBR Safe staining. A uniform intensity of bands and bright reference bands allow easy sizing and orientation. A defined amount of DNA in each band enables approximate quantification of sample DNA.

GeneRuler 1 kb Plus DNA Ladder, ready-to-use (Thermo Scientific™)

Thermo Scientific GeneRuler 1 kb Plus DNA Ladder is recommended for sizing and approximate quantification of a double-stranded DNA in the range of 75 bp to 20,000 bp on agarose gels. The DNA ladder consists of 15 DNA fragments and is provided with 6X TriTrack DNA Loading Dye.

Highlights of 1 kb Plus DNA Ladder
Easy visualization—three-color tracking of DNA migration during electrophoresis with 6X TriTrack DNA Loading Dye (contains Xylene Cyanol FF, Bromophenol Blue, and Orange G)
Simplicity—one loading dye for a variety of samples
Sharp bands—clear results with mixtures of individual chromatography-purified DNA fragments
Convenient—ready-to-load DNA Ladder is premixed with 6X TriTrack DNA Loading dye and stable at room temperature for up to 6 months

Product use
This double-stranded DNA ladder is compatible with 1% standard and precast agarose slab gels and can be visualized after ethidium bromide or SYBR Safe staining. A uniform intensity of bands and bright reference bands allow easy sizing and orientation. A defined amount of DNA in each band enables approximate quantification of sample DNA.

NoLimits 10000 bp DNA Fragment (Thermo Scientific™)

Thermo Scientific NoLimits is a collection of 36 highly-purified individual DNA fragments ranging from 10 to 20,000 bp. Unlike other vendors, where custom standards are produced by PCR, Thermo Scientific NoLimits DNA fragments are produced using specifically designed plasmids purified by patented technology.Plasmid DNA, digested with Thermo Scientific Restriction Enzymes, is chromatography-purified to prepare the individual DNA fragments from the digestion mixture. The results are extremely pure DNA fragments, free of any truncated or degraded molecules. These custom DNA fragments are the best custom standards for applications ranging from electrophoresis (both gel and capillary) to HPLC and beyond.

Features

• Broad range: 10-20,000 bp
• Sharp peaks during capillary electrophoresis, sharp bands during gel electrophoresis
• Precise DNA concentration
• Chromatography-purified individual DNA fragments

Applications

• Gel electrophoresis
• Capillary electrophoresis
• DNA quantification
• HPLC analysis
• Applications where a custom DNA size standard is required.