Learn More Gabriel Synthesis
The alkylation of phthalimide with alkyl halides was first reported in 1884, but in 1887 S. Gabriel realized that the process was a general one and developed a synthesis for primary amines. Henceforward, the mild two-step process for the preparation of primary amines from their corresponding alkyl...
Learn More Friedel-Crafts Acylation and Alkylation
In 1877, C.Friedel and J.M. Crafts reacted amyl chloride with aluminum pieces in benzene, forming amyl benzene. The reaction of alkyl halides with benzene was found to be general, and aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) was identified as the catalyst.
Learn More Halogen-containing Compounds
Organo halides (also known as halocarbons) are organic compounds containing halogens such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Depending on the type of halogen atom, these are referred to asorganofluourine compounds, organochlorine compounds, organobromine compounds, and organoiodine...
Learn More Grignard Reagents
Organomagnesium halides of the general structure R-Mg-X, with R = alkyl, alkenyl or aryl and X = halogen, are called “Grignard” reagents after their inventor, chemist Victor Grignard. Grignard reagents are highly reactive and react with most organic compounds.
Learn More Hunsdiecker Reaction
In 1861, Russian chemist Alexander Borodin prepared methyl bromide from silver acetate in a combined decarboxylation and halogenation reaction. Building on this work in 1939, German chemists Cläre and Heinz Hunsdiecker demonstrated that when silver salts of carboxylic acids react with a halogen, an...
Learn More Keck Radical Allylation
First reported separately by Masanori Kosugi and Jean Grignon in 1973, the coupling of an alkyl halide with allyltributyltin under radical conditions to insert an allyl group was employed in the total synthesis of perhydrohistrionicotoxin by Gary Keck and colleagues.
Learn More Organometallics and Organometalloids
Organometallics and organometalloids are among the most widely used compounds in modern organic chemistry. With diverse laboratory applications ranging from homogenous catalysts to stoichiometric reagents, they continue to play a vital role in research and development.
Learn More Grignard Reaction
In 1900, French chemist Victor Grignard discovered that when treating an alkyl halide with magnesium metal in diethyl ether, a cloudy solution of an organomagnesium compound was formed. This substance would subsequently react with aldehydes and ketones to produce secondary and tertiary alcohols,...
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Learn More Sandmeyer Reaction
In 1884, Swiss chemist Traugott Sandmeyer attempted to synthesize phenylacetylene from benzenediazonium chloride and copper(I) acetylide. However, the main product he isolated was chlorobenzene, and no trace of the desired product was found.
Learn More Mislow-Evans Rearrangement
In 1968, the German-born American chemist Kurt Mislow reported that when heating enantiomerically pure allylic sulfoxides, they underwent thermal racemization whilst enantiopure allylic sulfenates gave optically active sulfoxides.
Learn More Clemmensen Reduction
In 1913, the Danish chemist Erik Christian Clemmensen reported that simple ketones and aldehydes reacted with amalgamated zinc (Zn/Hg) in the presence of 40% aqueous hydrochloric acid, and in a hydrophobic solvent, such as toluene, to give the corresponding alkanes after several hours under reflux...
Learn More Phosphorus-containing Compounds
Organophosphorus compounds are organic compounds that contain phosphorus. However, a compound need not have a direct phosphorus-carbon (P-C) bond for it to be considered an organophosphorus compound; it is sufficient that phosphorus contain only an organic substituent.
The purpose of this experiment is to perform a microscale synthesis of acetylferrocene from ferrocene and acetic anhydride in an acid-catalyzed (85% H3PO4) Friedel-Crafts reaction. Solutions of pure ferrocene and acetylferrocene, crude isolated product and column purified reaction product will be...
Learn More Wittig Reaction
In the early 1950s, chemists Georg Wittig and Georg Geissler reported the reaction of methylenetriphenylphosphorane and benzophenone to form 1,1-diphenylethene and triphenylphosphine oxide in quantitative yield.