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Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping in unprocessed whole blood and serum by real-time PCR: application to SNPs affecting homocysteine and folate metabolism. Citations & References

  • Authors: Ulvik A; Ueland PM
  • Journal: Clinical Chemistry
Catalog #
  • 4318739(Discontinued)
  • 4327059(Discontinued)
  • 4327058(Discontinued)

Clinical assessment of blood leukocytes, serum cytokines, and serum immunoglobulins as responses to sleep deprivation in laboratory rats. Citations & References

  • Authors: Everson CA,
  • Journal: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol
  • PubMed ID: 15947073

Application Note: High-Throughput LC-MS/MS Quantification of Estrone (E1) and Estradiol (E2) in Human Blood Plasma/Serum for Clinical Research Purposes Product Literature

What are general guidelines for the production of blood serum and plasma for cytokine analysis using ELISA and ProcartaPlex assays? Product FAQ

Answer

Serum is the liquid fraction of whole blood that is collected after the blood has clotted. The clot is removed by centrifugation and the resulting supernatant is the serum. It is carefully removed and used right away or it can be stored at -20 degrees C or below. Plasma is produced when whole blood is collected in tubes that contain an anticoagulant. In this case, the blood does not clot and the red and white blood cells are removed by centrifugation. The supernatant, called plasma, is carefully removed from the cell pellet and can be used right away or stored frozen for testing later.

Here are some procedures for preparing serum and plasma:

For serum, collect whole blood in capped test tubes and allow it to clot. Typically, commercially available tubes such as Vacutainer tubes are used, and for serum, the researcher should use the ones with red tops (no anticoagulant added). Vacutainer tubes of various types and volumes are available from Fisher Scientific. After collecting the blood, leave it undisturbed at room temperature to clot, which usually takes 15-30 minutes. Remove the clot by centrifugation at 1,000-2,000 x g for 10 minutes in a refrigerated centrifuge. The resulting supernatant is the serum. Following centrifugation, it is important to immediately transfer the sera into clean polypropylene tubes. These samples should be kept on wet ice until they are used or frozen. If the sera are not analyzed immediately, they should be divided into 0.5 mL aliquots and stored frozen at -20 degrees C or lower. It is important to avoid freeze/thaw cycles because this is detrimental to many serum components. Also, serum derived from blood that has undergone hemolysis (erythrocyte lysis), is icteric (contains bilirubin) or is lipemic (contains lipids) can invalidate certain tests.

For plasma preparation, collect whole blood into commercially available anticoagulant-treated Vacutainer or equivalent tubes. Tubes that are EDTA-treated (lavender tops) or citrate-treated (light blue tops) are commonly used. Heparinized tubes (green tops) are indicated for some applications. However, heparin can be contaminated with endotoxin, which can stimulate white blood cells to release cytokines. Cells are removed from the non-coagulated blood by centrifugation for 10 min at 1,000-2,000 x g using a refrigerated centrifuge. Centrifugation for 15 min at 2,000 x g depletes platelets in the plasma sample, if desired. Either way, the resulting supernatant is the plasma. Following centrifugation, it is important to immediately transfer the plasma into clean polypropylene tubes. The samples should be maintained on wet ice during handling. If the plasma is not analyzed immediately, it should be divided into 0.5 mL aliquots and stored at –20 degrees C or lower. It is important to avoid freeze/thaw cycles with plasma as well. Like serum, plasma derived from hemolyzed, icteric, or lipemic blood can invalidate certain tests.

Besides Vacutainer tubes, there are other commercially available tubes for blood sample collection. However, we have not evaluated these tubes to see if sera and plasma samples derived with them are compatible with our ELISA and ProcartaPlex kits. Nevertheless, commercially available blood collection tubes for serum are designated as follows: red caps = no anticoagulant or red caps with black stripes = no anticoagulant and containing gel to help to separate the clot (not evaluated). Blood collection tubes for plasma are as designated as follows: lavender cap = treated with EDTA, blue cap = treated with citrate, green cap = treated with heparin, grey cap = treated with potassium oxalate/sodium fluoride (not evaluated), and yellow cap = treated with acid-citrate-dextrose (not evaluated).

Answer Id:: E5220

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Analysis of the RNA content of the exosomes derived from blood serum and urine and its potential as biomarkers. Citations & References

  • Authors: Li M, Zeringer E, Barta T, Schageman J, Cheng A, Vlassov AV,
  • Journal: Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
  • PubMed ID: 25135963
Catalog # 4471136

A critical evaluation of loss of heterozygosity detected in tumor tissues, blood serum and bone marrow plasma from patients with breast cancer Citations & References

  • Authors: Schwarzenbach, H; Mueller, V; Beeger, C; Gottberg, M; Stahmann, N; Pantel, K
  • Journal: Breast Cancer Research
Catalog #
  • 4318739(Discontinued)
  • 4327059(Discontinued)
  • 4327058(Discontinued)

Automated analysis procedure for valproic acid in blood, serum and brain dialysate by high-performance liquid chromatography with bromomethylmethoxycoumarin as fluorescent label. Citations & References

  • Authors: Wolf JH, Veenma-van der Duin L, Korf J
  • Journal: J Chromatogr
  • PubMed ID: 2498377
Catalog # B344

What sample types are compatible with the MagMAX Viral/Pathogen Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit? Product FAQ

Answer

Human biofluid samples (e.g., blood, serum, plasma, urine, CSF, lavage, saliva), samples stored in transport media (e.g., BD Universal Viral Transport (UVT) Media), and bacteriophage culture are compatible with the MagMAX Viral/Pathogen Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit.

Answer Id:: E17318

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What sample types are compatible with the MagMAX Viral/Pathogen Ultra Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit? Product FAQ

Answer

Human biofluid samples (e.g., blood, serum, plasma, urine, CSF, lavage, saliva), samples stored in transport media (e.g., BD Universal Viral Transport (UVT) Media), and bacteriophage culture are compatible with the MagMAX Viral/Pathogen Ultra Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit.

Answer Id:: E17323

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Bioengineering and serum free expansion of blood-derived ?d T cells. Citations & References

  • Authors: Sutton KS, Dasgupta A, McCarty D, Doering CB, Spencer HT
  • Journal: Cytotherapy
  • PubMed ID: 27260209
Catalog #

Fluorescence determination of 5-fluorouracil and 1-(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)-5-fluorouracil in blood serum by high-performance liquid chromatography. Citations & References

  • Authors: Iwamoto M, Yoshida S, Hirose S
  • Journal: J Chromatogr
  • PubMed ID: 6438145
Catalog # B344

In vitro hemocompatibility and toxic mechanism of graphene oxide on human peripheral blood T lymphocytes and serum albumin. Citations & References

  • Authors: Ding Z, Zhang Z, Ma H, Chen Y,
  • Journal: ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
  • PubMed ID: 25371999
Catalog # 4471136

Interaction between ether glycerophospholipid vesicles and serum proteins in vitro. Citations & References

  • Authors: Hermetter A, Paltauf F
  • Journal: Biochim Biophys Acta
  • PubMed ID: 6871238
Catalog # C481

Comparison of whole serum-deprived media for ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells from cord blood and mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Citations & References

  • Authors: Sandstrom CE, Collins PC, McAdams TA, Bender JG, Papoutsakis ET, Miller WM,
  • Journal: J Hematother
  • PubMed ID: 8938518
Catalog #
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