Learn More Lanthanide Rare Earth Elements
Learn More Hydrides
To inorganic chemists, hydrides are compounds or ions made up of hydrogen bonded to an electropositive (or a less electronegative) element. Hydrides can be formed with almost all main-group elements, but inorganic hydrides are usually classified iinto four main groups: covalent, ionic, transition...
Learn More Element Search Tool
The periodic table of the elements was first introduced in the mid-19th century by Dmitri Mendeleev, who originally represented the elements as periodic functions of their atomic weights. As more elements were discovered, they were arranged in the periodic table in numerical order according to their...
Learn More Table of Elements
A key feature of the Thermo Scientific Avantage Data System for XPS is an extensive knowledge base of information regarding XPS analysis and the elements they characterize. We present the knowledge base here, organized according to the periodic table of elements.
Learn More Yttrium
Primary XPS region: Y3d Overlapping regions: Si2s Binding energies of common chemical states:, Experimental information N/A Interpretation of XPS spectra Y3d region has well-resolved spin-orbit components.
Learn More Luche Reduction
In 1978, the French chemist Jean Louis Luche reported that by using a mixture of lanthanide chlorides and sodium borohydride, α,β-unsaturated ketones could be selectively converted to allylic alcohols.
Learn More Friedel-Crafts Acylation and Alkylation
In 1877, C.Friedel and J.M. Crafts reacted amyl chloride with aluminum pieces in benzene, forming amyl benzene. The reaction of alkyl halides with benzene was found to be general, and aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) was identified as the catalyst.
Learn More Mineral & Rare Earth Elements Analyzer
Portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology can be used in a wide range of mineralogical and geological exploration markets, one of which is the mining of Rare Earth Elements (REEs). REEs are defined as the 15 lanthanides plus scandium (Sc) and yttrium (Y), and they are critical components in...
Learn More IC-ICP-MS Speciation Analyzer
Simply measuring the total amount of an element in a sample does not provide the complete picture. Industries such as pharmaceutical, food, and environmental often measure elements that can exist as multiple molecular forms, or ‘species’, that exhibit different physiochemical properties.
Learn More Praseodymium
Primary XPS region: Pr3d Overlapping regions: Cu2p Binding energies of common chemical states:, Collect entire Pr3d region (up to 990eV), making sure both Pr3d5/2 and Pr3d3/2 components are acquired., There is direct overlap between Pr3d and Cu2p peaks.
Learn More Terbium
Primary XPS region: Tb4d Overlapping regions: N/A Binding energies of common chemical states: N/A, N/A, Symbol: Tb Date of discovery: 1843 Name origin: Ytterby, Sweden Appearance: silvery white Discoverer: Carl Gustaf Musander Obtained from: cerite, gadolinite, monazite Melting point: 1360 K Boiling...
Learn More Europium
Primary XPS region: Eu3d, Eu4d Overlapping regions: Binding energies of common chemical states: Oxide charge referenced to adventitious C1s peak at 284.8eV., N/A, Eu3d and Eu4d regions exhibit complex multiplet splitting for Eu(III) compounds . Shake-down satellite structure.
Learn More Holmium
Primary XPS region: Ho4d Overlapping regions: N/A Binding energies of common chemical states: N/A, N/A, Symbol: Ho Date of discovery: 1878 Name origin: Latin holmia Appearance: silver Discoverer: J.L. Soret Obtained from: gadolinite Melting point: 1470 K Boiling Ppoint: 2720 K Density[kg/m3]: 8.
Learn More Dysprosium
Primary XPS region: Dy4d Overlapping regions: N/A Binding energies of common chemical states: N/A, N/A, Symbol: Dy Date of discovery: 1886 Name origin: Greek dysprositos Appearance: silver Discoverer: Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran Obtained from: monazite, bastnasite Melting point: 1680 K Boiling...
Learn More Thulium
Primary XPS region: Tm4d Overlapping regions: N/A Binding energies of common chemical states: N/A, N/A, Symbol: Tm Date of discovery: 1879 Name origin: Thule, Scandinavia Appearance: silvery white Discoverer: Per Teodor Cleve Obtained from: monazite Melting point: 1545 K Boiling point: 1950 K...