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CytoScan™ Automation Starter Kit for NIMBUS™ (Applied Biosystems™)

The CytoScan™ Automation Starter Kit for NIMBUS™ contains non-disposable robotics deck hardware, which is required for the NIMBUS Target Preparation Instrument (sold separately).

CytoScan™ Consumables Kit for NIMBUS™ (Applied Biosystems™)

The CytoScan™ Consumables Kit for NIMBUS™ contains labware sufficient for 4x25 or 2x49 rxn runs, and is required for the NIMBUS Target Preparation Instrument (sold separately).

CytoScan™ HD Kit Plus 24 (Applied Biosystems™)

CytoScan™ HD Kit Plus 24 includes CytoScan HD arrays and Reagents enough for 24 reactions and the CytoScan Amplification Kit enough for 96 reactions.

CytoScan HD Suite is the unrivaled standard in cytogenetics research and delivers with:

Exceptional performance-coverage without compromise
CytoScan HD Suite provides the broadest coverage and highest performance for detecting chromosomal aberrations. CytoScan HD Suite has greater than 99% sensitivity and can reliably detect 25-50kb copy number changes across the genome at high specificity with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allelic corroboration. With more than 2.6 million copy number markers, CytoScan HD Suite covers all OMIM™ and RefSeq genes.Our proprietary manufacturing technology produces arrays that are highly reproducible between each batch with no risk of probe dropout inherent in bead manufacturing techniques. Surpassing the limitations of current database curations, the whole-genome array ensures that novel findings can be catalogued for future discoveries and annotations, which are often missed by targeted designs.

High-density SNPs with >99% genotype accuracy
Enables low-level mosaicism visualization, absence of heterozygosity (AOH) and acquired UPD (aUPD) detection, copy number change confirmation, triploidy detection, allelic imbalance pattern visualization, genomic contamination identification, trio consistency checking,and parent-of-origin analysis.

The broadest range of sample types supported - including POC FFPE
CytoScan HD Suite supports several different sample types for cancer and constitutional cytogenetic research analysis, including blood, bone marrow, buccal, saliva, fresh and frozen tissues, DBS cards, direct/cultured cells, amniocytes, and products of conception (POC), fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded non-archived samples among others.

Robust manual or automated assay workflows-DNA to result in less than three days, including newly available CytoScan Amplification Kit
CytoScan HD Solution has been optimized to save laboratory time, money and resources. The simplified and streamlined assay protocol is aligned with laboratory workflow requirements, making it easier to obtain consistency, high-quality results, and reduce operator error. The reagent kit includes reagents and magnetic beads required for the CytoScan assay (except ethanol). Each component passes strict quality control inspection to ensure the highest reproducibility and performance with CytoScan HD Arrays. The CytoScan™ protocol can be accomplished in 2.5 days with just 7 hours of hands-on time.

CytoScan Amplification Kit is now available!
CytoScan Amplification Kit (Cat. No. 902975) has been designed to be used at the PCR amplification step of the CytoScan assay and is manufactured by Takara Bio USA, Inc (Clontech). CytoScan Amplification Kit is equivalent to the Clontech Titanium™ DNA Amplification Kit (Cat. No. 639240, 300 reactions, or Cat. No. 639243, 400 reactions). The Amplification reagents in the CytoScan Amplification Kit generate PCR products to be used in the preparation of the target DNA to be hybridized to CytoScan 750K and HD Arrays. The kit contains enough reagents to prepare 400 PCR reactions-equivalent to 96-100 samples processed with the CytoScan assay.

Affymetrix NIMBUS Target Preparation Instrument - automate your workflow
Affymetrix NIMBUS Target Preparation Instrument offers your lab the premier in compact liquid-handling instrumentation. The sleek Affymetrix NIMBUS workstation is optimized to automate the post-PCR portion of the CytoScan assay, including the DNA purification and pooling stages. CytoScan Automated Target Preparation Solution is ideal for labs looking to handle 24 or 48 samples with ease and increase sample throughput.

Chromosome Analysis Suite (ChAS)-designed for cytogenetic applications
The popular ChAS Software is available free of charge as part of the CytoScan HD Suite. ChAS is tailored to cytogenetic research analysis and reporting with:

• Streamlinedanalysis and reporting workflow
• Ability to apply customized filters to analyze the genome at different levels of resolution
• Options to create, modify, and upload annotation files and flag regions for focused analysis
• A database for storage, query and visualization of samples
• Direct access to externaldatabases such as NCBI, UCSC Genome Browser, Ensembl, and OMIM
•Trio consistency checking for parental studies
•Cancer-tailoredanalysis tools

First-class customer training and support
Customer training is required for the CytoScan HD assay for both new and existing customers. Different products are available based upon your experience level; please contact us here for details.

Related Links

901835 CytoScan™ HD Array Kit and Reagent Kit Bundle

905896 CytoScan™ HD Array Kit Plus 96

CytoScan™ Dx Assay Training Kits

CytoScan™ Dx Training Kit includes arrays, reagents, and control samples necessary to perform the CytoScan™ Dx Assay Training. For more information on CytoScan™ Dx Assay, please go here.

NIMBUS™ CytoScan™ Training Kit (Applied Biosystems™)

The NIMBUS™ CytoScan™ Training Kit is for use with the NIMBUS Target Preparation Instrument (sold separately).

CytoScan™ HD Array Kit and Reagent Kit Bundle (Applied Biosystems™)

CytoScan™ HD Suite includes CytoScan HD Array, CytoScan Reagent Kit, the easy-to-use Chromosome Analysis Suite (ChAS), and the proven GeneChip™ Instrument System.

CytoScan HD Suite is the unrivaled standard in cytogenetics research and delivers with:

Exceptional performance-coverage without compromise
CytoScan HD Suite provides the broadest coverage and highest performance for detecting chromosomal aberrations. CytoScan HD Suite has greater than 99% sensitivity and can reliably detect 25-50kb copy number changes across the genome at high specificity with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allelic corroboration. With more than 2.6 million copy number markers, CytoScan HD Suite covers all OMIM™ and RefSeq genes.Our proprietary manufacturing technology produces arrays that are highly reproducible between each batch with no risk of probe dropout inherent in bead manufacturing techniques. Surpassing the limitations of current database curations, the whole-genome array ensures that novel findings can be catalogued for future discoveries and annotations, which are often missed by targeted designs.

High-density SNPs with >99% genotype accuracy
Enables low-level mosaicism visualization, absence of heterozygosity (AOH) and acquired UPD (aUPD) detection, copy number change confirmation, triploidy detection, allelic imbalance pattern visualization, genomic contamination identification, trio consistency checking,and parent-of-origin analysis.

The broadest range of sample types supported - including POC FFPE
CytoScan HD Suite supports several different sample types for cancer and constitutional cytogenetic research analysis, including blood, bone marrow, buccal, saliva, fresh and frozen tissues, DBS cards, direct/cultured cells, amniocytes, and products of conception (POC), fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded non-archived samples among others.

Robust manual or automated assay workflows-DNA to result in less than three days, including newly available CytoScan Amplification Kit
CytoScan HD Solution has been optimized to save laboratory time, money and resources. The simplified and streamlined assay protocol is aligned with laboratory workflow requirements, making it easier to obtain consistency, high-quality results, and reduce operator error. The reagent kit includes reagents and magnetic beads required for the CytoScan assay (except ethanol). Each component passes strict quality control inspection to ensure the highest reproducibility and performance with CytoScan HD Arrays. The CytoScan protocol can be accomplished in 2.5 days with just 7 hours of hands-on time.

CytoScan Amplification Kit is now available!
CytoScan Amplification Kit (Cat. No. 902975) has been designed to be used at the PCR amplification step of the CytoScan assay and is manufactured by Takara Bio USA, Inc (Clontech). CytoScan Amplification Kit is equivalent to the Clontech Titanium™ DNA Amplification Kit (Cat. No. 639240, 300 reactions, or Cat. No. 639243, 400 reactions). The Amplification reagents in the CytoScan Amplification Kit generate PCR products to be used in the preparation of the target DNA to be hybridized to CytoScan 750K and HD Arrays. The kit contains enough reagents to prepare 400 PCR reactions-equivalent to 96-100 samples processed with the CytoScan assay.

Affymetrix NIMBUS Target Preparation Instrument - automate your workflow
Affymetrix NIMBUS Target Preparation Instrument offers your lab the premier in compact liquid-handling instrumentation. The sleek Affymetrix NIMBUS workstation is optimized to automate the post-PCR portion of the CytoScan assay, including the DNA purification and pooling stages. CytoScan Automated Target Preparation Solution is ideal for labs looking to handle 24 or 48 samples with ease and increase sample throughput.

Chromosome Analysis Suite (ChAS)-designed for cytogenetic applications
The popular ChAS Software is available free of charge as part of the CytoScan HD Suite. ChAS is tailored to cytogenetic research analysis and reporting with:

• Streamlinedanalysis and reporting workflow
• Ability to apply customized filters to analyze the genome at different levels of resolution
• Options to create, modify, and upload annotation files and flag regions for focused analysis
• A database for storage, query and visualization of samples
• Direct access to externaldatabases such as NCBI, UCSC Genome Browser, Ensembl, and OMIM
•Trio consistency checking for parental studies
•Cancer-tailoredanalysis tools

First-class customer training and support
Customer training is required for the CytoScan HD assay for both new and existing customers. Different products are available based upon your experience level; please contact us here for details.

Related Links
905824 CytoScan™ HD Kit Plus 24
905896 CytoScan™ HD Kit Plus 96

CytoScan™ Dx Assay Kit

The American Academy of Neurology (AAN), the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG), and the International Collaboration for Clinical Genomics (ICCG/ISCA) recommend chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) as the first-line test to aid in the diagnostic evaluation of intellectual disability.1,2,3 The CytoScan Dx Assay is the first and only FDA-cleared chromosomal microarray test to aid in the identification of the underlying genetic cause of developmental delay, intellectual disability, congenital anomalies, or dysmorphic features in children.

>> Access software, manuals, and documentation via the CytoScan Dx Portal (login required).

Key benefits:
First of-its-kind diagnostic test—FDA-cleared and CE marked postnatal blood test to aid in the diagnosis of developmental delay, intellectual disabilities, congenital anomalies, or dysmorphic features
Analyze the entire genome with one test—accurately detect numerous chromosomal variations of different types, sizes, and genomic locations at higher resolution than karyotyping and more comprehensively than conventional FISH
Designed for today and the future—the design of the CytoScan Dx Assay, which includes 2.69 million functional markers across the entire genome, ensures that most genes are represented, not only those identified as currently relevant
Dual probe content with high-density SNPs—containing both CN and SNP probes, the CytoScan Dx Assay can elucidate allelic imbalances and identify LOH/AOH that can be associated with uniparental disomy or consanguinity, both of which increase the risk of recessive disorders. SNP patterns also provide confirmation of copy number changes.
Exceptional performance—high specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, and resolution across the genome
Streamlined data analysis—Chromosome Analysis Suite Dx (ChAS Dx) Software has an intuitive graphical interface for streamlined analysis workflows, ISCN 2013 array nomenclature, and links to databases* to support data analysis workflows
Improved diagnostic yield—due to its higher resolution and whole-genome coverage, the CytoScan Dx Assay improves diagnostic yield by an incremental 12.5% enabling accurate and more effective diagnosis when compared to G-banded karyotype

First-class customer training and support
Customer training is required to implement the CytoScan Dx Assay for both new and existing customers. Different options are available based upon your experience level; please contact us for details.

Intended use
The CytoScan Dx Assay is a qualitative assay intended for the postnatal detection of chromosomal copy number variants (CNV) in genomic DNA (gDNA) obtained from peripheral whole blood in patients referred for chromosomal testing based on clinical presentation. The CytoScan Dx Assay is indicated for the detection of CNVs associated with developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (DD/ID), congenital anomalies, and/or dysmorphic features. Assay results are intended to be used in conjunction with other clinical and diagnostic findings, consistent with professional standards of practice including confirmation by alternative methods, parental evaluation, clinical genetic evaluation, and counseling as appropriate. Interpretation of assay results is intended to be performed only by healthcare professionals board certified in clinical cytogenetics or molecular genetics. The assay is intended to be used on the GeneChip System 3000Dx and analyzed by Chromosome Analysis Suite Dx Software (ChAS Dx Software).

WARNING:
This device is not intended to be used for standalone diagnostic purposes, pre-implantation or prenatal testing or screening, population screening, or for the detection of, or screening for, acquired or somatic genetic aberrations. Interpretation of assay results is intended to be performed only by healthcare professionals, board certified in clinical cytogenetics or molecular genetics.

Technical features and limitations**
• The smallest CNV regions that ChAS Dx calls are 25 kb and 25 markers for losses, and 50 kb and 50 markers for gains. Performance of the assay has not been assessed below these settings.
• Mosaic copy number <20% may not be reliably detected and detection sensitivity is affected by the size of the CNV.
• Loss (absence) of heterozygosity (LOH/AOH) has a filter setting of 3 Mb. Performance of the assay has not been assessed for LOH below this setting for reporting.
• CytoScan Dx Assay cannot identify balanced chromosomal rearrangements, such as translocations or inversions.
• The assay is validated for use with peripheral whole blood anticoagulated with heparin or EDTA. It has not been validated for any other specimen type.
• CytoScan Dx Assay is limited to personnel trained in this assay.

*Links in ChAS Dx to external databases such as Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) have not been evaluated or curated by Thermo Fisher Scientific.
**For details on technical performance and a full list of limitations, please refer to the IFU (for registered users at www.affymetrix.com/IVD).

References
1. Michelson D. J., et al. Evidence report: genetic and metabolic testing on children with global developmental delay: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology 77(17):1629-1635 (2011).
2. Miller D. T., et al. Consensus statement: chromosomal microarray is a first-tier clinical diagnostic test for individuals with developmental disabilities or congenital anomalies. American Journal of Human Genetics 86(5):749-764 (2010).
3. Manning M., Hudgins L. Professional Practice and Guidelines Committee. Array-based technology and recommendations for utilization in medical genetics practice for detection of chromosomal abnormalities. Genetics in Medicine 12(11):742-745 (2010).

Access software, manuals, documentation via the CytoScan Dx Portal (login required).

CytoScan™ HD Training Kit (Applied Biosystems™)

The CytoScan™ HD Training Kit contains arrays and reagents for 24 reactions plus training materials for the complete CytoScan HD Cytogenetics Solution.

Customer training is required for the CytoScan HD Cytogenetics Solution. Different training programs are available based upon your experience level. Please contact your local distributor for details.

CytoScan HD Cytogenetics Solution
The complete CytoScan HD Cytogenetics Solution includes CytoScan HD Array, CytoScan Reagent Kit, easy-to-use Chromosome Analysis Suite (ChAS) Software, and the proven GeneChip Instrument System.

Highest genomic coverage: relevant today and in the future
CytoScan HD Solution provides the broadest coverage and highest performance for detecting human chromosomal aberrations. CytoScan HD Array has greater than 99% sensitivity and can reliably detect 25-50 kb copy number changes across the genome at high specificity with SNP (allelic) call corroboration. With more than 2.6 million copy number markers, CytoScan Array has been recognized for its industry-leading coverage of all OMIM™ and RefSeq genes. On a single platform, CytoScan HD Solution offers high-density resolution of the entire genome, extending throughout promoter and miRNA regions, for relevant aberration detection and reporting. Surpassing the limitations of current database curations, the whole-genome array ensures that novel findings can be catalogued for future discoveries and annotations which are often missed by targeted designs.

High-density SNPs: gene-level heterozygosity determination
CytoScan HD Array includes 750,000 SNPs with over 99% accuracy to detect accurate breakpoint estimation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) determination, regions identical-by-descent, maternal contamination, and low-level mosaicism. The allelic information provides a powerful visualization of added confidence behind CNV calls as well as information on sample heterogeneity, clonal diversity, and uniparental disomy (UPD).

Support the broadest range of sample types – including FFPE!
CytoScan HD Array supports several different sample types for cancer and constitutional cytogenetic research analysis, including blood, bone marrow, buccal, saliva, fresh and frozen tissues, direct/cultured cells, amniocytes, and FFPE samples.

Optimized reagent kit – streamLined workflow
CytoScan HD Solution has been optimized to save laboratory time, money and resources. The simplified and streamLined assay protocol is aligned with laboratory workflow requirements, making it easier to obtain consistency, high-quality results, and reduce operator error. The reagent kit includes all reagents required for the array, including magnetic beads, except ethanol and a DNA Amplification Kit (Please contact Technical Support for a recommendation on our DNA Amplification Kits). Each component passes strict quality control inspection by us to ensure the highest reproducibility and performance with CytoScan HD Arrays. The CytoScan protocol can be accomplished in 2.5 days with just 7 hours of hands-on time.

Affymetrix NIMBUS Target Preparation Instrument – automate your workflow
NIMBUS Target Preparation Instrument offers your lab the premier in compact liquid-handling instrumentation. The sleek NIMBUS workstation is optimized to automate the post-PCR portion of the CytoScan assay, including the DNA purification and pooling stages. CytoScan Automated Target Preparation Solution is ideal for labs looking to handle 24 or 48 samples with ease and increase sample throughput.

Chromosome Analysis Suite (ChAS) Software: designed by cytogeneticists for cytogeneticists
The popular ChAS Software is tailored to cytogenetic research analysis and reporting. The software is available free of charge as part of the complete CytoScan HD Solution.

Related Links
CytoScan™ HD Array Kit and Reagent Kit Bundle.

CytoScan™ Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems™)

CytoScan Amplification Kit is not sold as standalone but included in the NEW CytoScan Cytogenentics Suite Bundles:

905824 CytoScan HD Kit Plus 24

905896 CytoScan HD Kit Plus 96

905924 CytoScan 750K Kit Plus 24 - (Available Outside US/Canada Only)

905996 CytoScan 750K Kit Plus 96 - (Available Outside US/Canada Only)

The CytoScan™ Amplification Kit is part of the CytoScan Cytogenetics Suite, the unrivaled standard in cytogenetics, enabling the highest genome-wide resolution to detect chromosomal aberrations.

The CytoScan Amplification Kit has been designed to be used at the PCR amplification step of the CytoScan assay and is manufactured by Takara Bio USA, Inc (Clontech). CytoScan Amplification Kit is equivalent to the Clontech Titanium™ DNA Amplification Kit (Cat. No. 639240, 300 reactions, or Cat. No. 639243, 400 reactions). The amplification reagents in the CytoScan Amplification Kit generate PCR products to be used in the preparation of the target DNA to be hybridized to CytoScan 750K and HD Arrays. The kit contains enough reagents to prepare 400 PCR reactions-equivalent to 96-100 samples processed with the CytoScan assay.

The CytoScan Cytogenetics Suite includes: CytoScan Arrays, CytoScan Reagent Kit, the easy-to-use Chromosome Analysis Suite (ChAS), and the proven GeneChip™ Instrument System.



CytoScan™ XON Assay Training Kit (Applied Biosystems™)

The Applied Biosystems CytoScan XON Suite is an exon-level copy number solution that provides the sensitivity and flexibility required to improve and complement the analysis of important variants for clinical research. It is designed to cover the whole genome, with an increased focus on 7,000 clinically relevant genes. The CytoScan XON Suite is a full solution comprised of the assay, array, and analysis software. This CytoScan XON Assay Training Kit contains arrays and reagents for 24 reactions plus training materials for the complete CytoScan XON cytogenetics solution. Customer training is required for the CytoScan XON Assay. Different training programs are available based upon your experience level. Please contact your local distributor for details.

Sensitive exon-level copy number and superior coverage across the whole genome
Comprehensive and effective detection of deletions and duplications can be challenging from a cost perspective when using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assays or exome arrays for medical research. Additionally, custom-made products lack the flexibility to include any new gene of interest that is relevant to a particular disease.The CytoScan XON Suite is a microarray solution that detects single-exon deletion and duplication events with high sensitivity in key relevant genes in addition to providing whole-genome coverage. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) probes allow sample tracking, duo/trio, and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis.

Smart design improves resolution in key genes
The CytoScan XON Array content was designed through empirical selection from a pool of over 49 million probes for copy number responses across the genome. The best performing probes were selected to cover key genes and the exons within them. Any gaps were filled with additional probes flanking 500 bp from the targeted region ensuring that each exon contains enough probes to make a reliable call.

Reporting flexibility with gene panel or gene-level tier analysis
The flexibility of Chromosome Analysis Suite (ChAS) data analysis software enables easy viewing and summarizes the exon-level CNV results in various ways based on your specific clinical research needs.

Gene panel analysis
Simplify result reporting by using your preferred gene list or panel in the intuitive ChAS software. This analysis feature allows you to obtain exon-level CNV results limited to the gene panel you upload and view only the genes of interest.

Gene-level tier analysis
Gene-level tier analysis is incorporated into the user-friendly ChAS software, providing a novel and flexible approach where the software provides results by gene-level tiers based on clinical research relevance. This unique functionality allows visualization of CNVs for a targeted number of clinically relevant genes (level 1) or expands the gene-level tiers for a whole-genome view. Thus, the user determines the gene-level tiers of interest for analysis and reporting.

CytoScan™ XON Assay Kit (Applied Biosystems™)

The Applied Biosystems CytoScan XON Suite is an exon-level copy number solution that provides the sensitivity and flexibility required to improve and complement the analysis of important variants for clinical research. It is designed to cover the whole genome, with an increased focus on 7,000 clinically relevant genes. The CytoScan XON Suite is a full solution comprised of the assay, array, and analysis software. This CytoScan XON Assay Kit contains arrays and reagents sufficient for 24 reactions. Customer training is required for the CytoScan XON Assay. Different training programs are available based upon your experience level. Please contact your local distributor for details.

Sensitive exon-level copy number and superior coverage across the whole genome
Comprehensive and effective detection of deletions and duplications can be challenging from a cost perspective when using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assays or exome arrays for medical research. Additionally, custom-made products lack the flexibility to include any new gene of interest that is relevant to a particular disease.The CytoScan XON Suite is a microarray solution that detects single-exon deletion and duplication events with high sensitivity in key relevant genes in addition to providing whole-genome coverage. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) probes allow sample tracking, duo/trio, and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis.

Smart design improves resolution in key genes
The CytoScan XON Array content was designed through empirical selection from a pool of over 49 million probes for copy number responses across the genome. The best performing probes were selected to cover key genes and the exons within them. Any gaps were filled with additional probes flanking 500 bp from the targeted region ensuring that each exon contains enough probes to make a reliable call.

Reporting flexibility with gene panel or gene-level tier analysis
The flexibility of Chromosome Analysis Suite (ChAS) data analysis software enables easy viewing and summarizes the exon-level CNV results in various ways based on your specific clinical research needs.

Gene panel analysis
Simplify result reporting by using your preferred gene list or panel in the intuitive ChAS software. This analysis feature allows you to obtain exon-level CNV results limited to the gene panel you upload and view only the genes of interest.

Gene-level tier analysis
Gene-level tier analysis is incorporated into the user-friendly ChAS software, providing a novel and flexible approach where the software provides results by gene-level tiers based on clinical research relevance. This unique functionality allows visualization of CNVs for a targeted number of clinically relevant genes (level 1) or expands the gene-level tiers for a whole-genome view. Thus, the user determines the gene-level tiers of interest for analysis and reporting.

Pierce™ LDH Cytotoxicity Assay Kit (Thermo Scientific™)

The Thermo Scientific Pierce LDH Cytotoxicity Assay Kit is a reliable colorimetric assay to quantitatively measure lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released into the media from damaged cells as a biomarker for cellular cytotoxicity and cytolysis.

Features of the LDH Cytotoxicity Assay Kit:

Convenient—add-mix-read assay format for adherent and suspension cells
Colorimetric—quantitatively measures LDH release by formation of colored product
Robust—uses stable LDH enzyme activity as a cytotoxic marker
Flexible—ideal for high-throughput screening
Non-radioactive—safe alternative to 51Cr-release cytotoxicity assays

The Pierce LDH Cytotoxicity Assay Kit measures extracellular LDH in culture media using an enzymatic reaction that results in a red formazan product which can be measured spectrophotometrically. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a cytosolic enzyme that is is an indicator of cellular toxicity. The assay is ideal for high-throughput screening and provides a safe alternative to radioactive cytotoxicity assays.

Includes:
Kit contains substrate mix, assay buffer, 10X lysis buffer, stop solution, and LDH positive control

Requires:
Microplate reader capable of reading absorbance at 490nm and 680nm, flat-bottom clear 96-well plate compatible with spectrophotometer, multichannel pipette

Applications:
• Measure in vitro cytotoxicity mediated by chemicals, immune cells, or siRNA or microRNA
• Detect cytolysis in bioreactor or 3D tissue engineering applications

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a cytosolic enzyme present in many different types of cells. When the plasma membrane is damaged, LDH is released into cell culture media. The released LDH can be quantified by a coupled enzymatic reaction. First, LDH catalyzes the conversion of lactate to pyruvate via reduction of NAD+ to NADH. Second, diaphorase uses NADH to reduce a tetrazolium salt (INT) to a red formazan product. Therefore, the level of formazan formation is directly proportional to the amount of released LDH in the medium.

The assay is performed by transferring cell culture media from treated cells into a new microplate and adding the kit reagents. After incubation at room temperature for 30 minutes, reactions are stopped and LDH activity is determined by spectrophotometric absorbance at 490nm.