Detection Location


Downstream Application


Includes Label or Dye


Ligand Type


Optimal Reaction Temperature


Purity or Quality Grade


Reaction Format


Reverse Transcriptase


Sample Type (General)


Sub-Cellular Localization


Target Specificity


Products

Ulysis™ Alexa Fluor™ 647 Nucleic Acid Labeling Kit Invitrogen™

ULYSIS® Nucleic Acid Labeling Kits provide a unique method to attach a fluorescent dye to nucleic acids. The labeling reagent in the kit reacts with the N7 of guanine to form a stable coordination complex, and the reaction is simple and fast—just heat denature DNA (5 minutes), add the label (react for 15 minutes), then purify.

ULYSIS® Nucleic Acid Labeling Specifications:
• Dye (Ex/Em): Alexa Fluor® 647 (650/670 nm)
• Labeling reaction is complete in as little as 15 minutes
• Available in several Alexa Fluor® dye colors


The Resulting Labeled Probe is useful for:
• Dot, northern, and Southern blots
• RNA and DNA in situ hybridization
• Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH)
• Comparative genome hybridization (CGH)
• Microarray analysis

Reliable Labeling With the Universal Linkage System
We developed this series of ULYSIS® kits to enable rapid and simple coupling of our Alexa Fluor® dyes to purine bases in nucleic acid polymers. The method, the Universal Linkage System (ULS™), is based on the use of a platinum dye complex (owned by KREATECH Diagnostics) that forms a stable adduct with the N7 position of guanine and, to a lesser extent, adenine bases in DNA, RNA, PNA, and oligonucleotides. The result is a reliable nonenzymatic method for nucleic acid labeling.

Labeling is Fast and Easy
The labeling reaction typically takes only 15 minutes, and separation of the labeled nucleic acids from the unreacted ULS™ complex can be accomplished through the use of a simple spin-column procedure. DNA longer than ~1,000 base pairs requires a 10-minute DNase digestion before labeling, which both optimizes labeling and fragments the probe for efficient hybridization.

More Options for Nucleic Acid Labeling
To review various options for nucleic acid labeling, review Labeling Oligonucleotides and Nucleic Acids—Section 8.2 in the Molecular Probes® Handbook or view a list of our kits.

For Research Use Only. Not intended for human or animal therapeutic or diagnostic use.

Ulysis™ Alexa Fluor™ 594 Nucleic Acid Labeling Kit Invitrogen™

ULYSIS® Nucleic Acid Labeling Kits provide a unique method to attach a fluorescent dye to nucleic acids. The labeling reagent in the kit reacts with the N7 of guanine to form a stable coordination complex, and the reaction is simple and fast—just heat denature DNA (5 minutes), add the label (react for 15 minutes), then purify.

ULYSIS® Nucleic Acid Labeling Specifications:
• Dye (Ex/Em): Alexa Fluor® 594 (588/615 nm)
• Labeling reaction is complete in as little as 15 minutes
• Available in several Alexa Fluor® dye colors


The Resulting Labeled Probe is useful for:
• Dot, northern, and Southern blots
• RNA and DNA in situ hybridization
• Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH)
• Comparative genome hybridization (CGH)
• Microarray analysis

Reliable Labeling With the Universal Linkage System
We developed this series of ULYSIS® kits to enable rapid and simple coupling of our Alexa Fluor® dyes to purine bases in nucleic acid polymers. The method, the Universal Linkage System (ULS™), is based on the use of a platinum dye complex (owned by KREATECH Diagnostics) that forms a stable adduct with the N7 position of guanine and, to a lesser extent, adenine bases in DNA, RNA, PNA, and oligonucleotides. The result is a reliable nonenzymatic method for nucleic acid labeling.

Labeling is Fast and Easy
The labeling reaction typically takes only 15 minutes, and separation of the labeled nucleic acids from the unreacted ULS™ complex can be accomplished through the use of a simple spin-column procedure. DNA longer than ~1,000 base pairs requires a 10-minute DNase digestion before labeling, which both optimizes labeling and fragments the probe for efficient hybridization.

More Options for Nucleic Acid Labeling
To review various options for nucleic acid labeling, review Labeling Oligonucleotides and Nucleic Acids—Section 8.2 in the Molecular Probes® Handbook or view a list of our kits.

For Research Use Only. Not intended for human or animal therapeutic or diagnostic use.

Ulysis™ Alexa Fluor™ 546 Nucleic Acid Labeling Kit Invitrogen™

ULYSIS® Nucleic Acid Labeling Kits provide a unique method to attach a fluorescent dye to nucleic acids. The labeling reagent in the kit reacts with the N7 of guanine to form a stable coordination complex, and the reaction is simple and fast—just heat denature DNA (5 minutes), add the label (react for 15 minutes), then purify.

ULYSIS® Nucleic Acid Labeling Specifications:
• Dye (Ex/Em): Alexa Fluor® 546 (555/570 nm)
• Labeling reaction is complete in as little as 15 minutes
• Available in several Alexa Fluor® dye colors


The Resulting Labeled Probe is useful for:
• Dot, northern, and Southern blots
• RNA and DNA in situ hybridization
• Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH)
• Comparative genome hybridization (CGH)
• Microarray analysis

Reliable Labeling With the Universal Linkage System
We developed this series of ULYSIS® kits to enable rapid and simple coupling of our Alexa Fluor® dyes to purine bases in nucleic acid polymers. The method, the Universal Linkage System (ULS™), is based on the use of a platinum dye complex (owned by KREATECH Diagnostics) that forms a stable adduct with the N7 position of guanine and, to a lesser extent, adenine bases in DNA, RNA, PNA, and oligonucleotides. The result is a reliable nonenzymatic method for nucleic acid labeling.

Labeling is Fast and Easy
The labeling reaction typically takes only 15 minutes, and separation of the labeled nucleic acids from the unreacted ULS™ complex can be accomplished through the use of a simple spin-column procedure. DNA longer than ~1,000 base pairs requires a 10-minute DNase digestion before labeling, which both optimizes labeling and fragments the probe for efficient hybridization.

More Options for Nucleic Acid Labeling
To review various options for nucleic acid labeling, review Labeling Oligonucleotides and Nucleic Acids—Section 8.2 in the Molecular Probes® Handbook or view a list of our kits.

For Research Use Only. Not intended for human or animal therapeutic or diagnostic use.

Ulysis™ Alexa Fluor™ 488 Nucleic Acid Labeling Kit Invitrogen™

ULYSIS® Nucleic Acid Labeling Kits provide a unique method to attach a fluorescent dye to nucleic acids. The labeling reagent in the kit reacts with the N7 of guanine to form a stable coordination complex, and the reaction is simple and fast—just heat denature DNA (5 minutes), add the label (react for 15 minutes), then purify.

ULYSIS® Nucleic Acid Labeling Specifications:
• Dye (Ex/Em): Alexa Fluor® 488 (492/520 nm)
• Labeling reaction is complete in as little as 15 minutes
• Available in several Alexa Fluor® dye colors


The Resulting Labeled Probe is useful for:
• Dot, northern, and Southern blots
• RNA and DNA in situ hybridization
• Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH)
• Comparative genome hybridization (CGH)
• Microarray analysis

Reliable Labeling With the Universal Linkage System
We developed this series of ULYSIS® kits to enable rapid and simple coupling of our Alexa Fluor® dyes to purine bases in nucleic acid polymers. The method, the Universal Linkage System (ULS™), is based on the use of a platinum dye complex (owned by KREATECH Diagnostics) that forms a stable adduct with the N7 position of guanine and, to a lesser extent, adenine bases in DNA, RNA, PNA, and oligonucleotides. The result is a reliable nonenzymatic method for nucleic acid labeling.

Labeling is Fast and Easy
The labeling reaction typically takes only 15 minutes, and separation of the labeled nucleic acids from the unreacted ULS™ complex can be accomplished through the use of a simple spin-column procedure. DNA longer than ~1,000 base pairs requires a 10-minute DNase digestion before labeling, which both optimizes labeling and fragments the probe for efficient hybridization.

More Options for Nucleic Acid Labeling
To review various options for nucleic acid labeling, review Labeling Oligonucleotides and Nucleic Acids—Section 8.2 in the Molecular Probes® Handbook or view a list of our kits.

For Research Use Only. Not intended for human or animal therapeutic or diagnostic use.

KinaseMax™ 5' End-Labeling Kit Invitrogen™

The Ambion® KinaseMax™ 5' End-Labeling Kit allows the efficient end-labeling of DNA or RNA to high-specific activity with T4 polynucleotide kinase and [gamma-32P] ATP, or quantitative phosphorylation of 5' ends using unlabeled ATP. Includes sufficient reagents for 30 reactions.

• Label oligonucleotide probes for nuclease protection assays and blot hybridizations
• Label primers for northerns and quantitative PCR
• Obtain up to 3-fold greater yields than with standard kinase buffers
• Reagents included for forward and dephosphorylation reactions

The kit includes a kinase reaction buffer that exceeds the performance of the standard forward reaction buffers recommended in "Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual" (Sambrook et al., 1989) and "Current Protocols in Molecular Biology" (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Ausubel, FM et al. editors, 1994). Crude 7000 Ci/mmol [gamma-32P]ATP is compatible with this kit. End-labeled probes are more stable than internally labeled probes and can routinely be used in assays for two to four weeks.

Rapid, Phenol-Free Phosphatase Removal Step
Inactivating the Calf Intestinal Phosphatase (CIP) after the dephosphorylation reaction is a time-consuming and cumbersome procedure that usually requires phenol extraction and ethanol precipitation typically resulting in sample loss. The KinaseMax™ Kit now includes a novel Phosphatase Removal Reagent for quick and complete removal of CIP. After the dephosphorylation step, the reagent is added to the reaction, incubated at room temperature for 2 minutes. The tube is then spun for a minute in the microfuge and the supernatant transferred to a new tube for the kinasing reaction.

Accessory Products:
The NucAway™ Spin Columns (SKU# AM10070) are available for rapid purification of end-labeled probes.

ARES™ Alexa Fluor™ 647 DNA Labeling Kit Invitrogen™

The ARES™ Alexa Fluor® DNA Labeling Kit provides a versatile, two-step method for labeling DNA with our Alexa Fluor® dyes. In the first step, an amine-modified nucleotide is incorporated into DNA using conventional enzymatic labeling methods. In the second step, the amine-modified DNA is chemically labeled using our proprietary amine-reactive Alexa Fluor® 647 dye. The labeled probes can be used for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and microarray techniques. We offer ARES™ Alexa Fluor® DNA Labeling Kits in five fluorescent colors, and each kit provides sufficient reagents for 5 to 10 labeling reactions of 1 to 5 µg DNA each.

ARES™ Alexa Fluor® Labeling Kit Specifications:
• Dye (Ex/Em): Alexa Fluor® 647 (650/670 nm)
• Achieves more uniform, consistent labeling than techniques for enzymatic incorporation of labeled nucleotides
• Typically produces one dye per 12–20 bases
• Optimal for FISH and microarrays


More Uniform Labeling With ARES™ Labeling Kits
ARES™ Alexa Fluor® Labeling Kits employ a two-step labeling technology—nick translation to enzymatically incorporate an amine-modified nucleotide (aminoallyl dUTP) followed by chemical labeling with Alexa Fluor® dyes. This method achieves uniformity and consistency of labeling that is difficult to obtain with conventional enzymatic incorporation of labeled nucleotides.
We also offer this two-step labeling technology in our FISH Tag™ DNA and FISH Tag™ RNA Kits, which provide a complete workflow solution for FISH applications, including all of the reagents for probe synthesis, labeling, purification and an anti-fade reagent to help protect the signal during fluorescence microscopy.

More Options for Nucleic Acid Labeling
To review various options for nucleic acid labeling (including DNA and RNA FISH), review Labeling Oligonucleotides and Nucleic Acids—Section 8.2 in the Molecular Probes® Handbook.

For Research Use Only. Not intended for human or animal therapeutic or diagnostic use.

RadPrime DNA Labeling System Invitrogen™

The RadPrime DNA Labeling System is ideal for rapid preparation (<10 min) of high-specific activity 32 P-labeled probes for the detection of DNA and RNA (1). The RadPrime DNA Labeling System:

• Produces probes that can detect nucleic acids on northern or Southern blots, plaque lifts, colony hybridizations, and in situ hybridization
• Yields >109 cpm/µg control DNA using [32P]-dCTP
• Labels 25 ng of DNA in one reaction

Performance and Quality Testing: Incorporation of a radioactively labeled nucleotide is verified using control DNA in a RadPrime labeling reaction.

DECAprime™ II DNA Labeling Kit Invitrogen™

The Ambion® kit is for labeling DNA using a random-priming method, which has technical improvements over existing methods including the use of a high-purity, exonuclease-free Klenow and Random Decamers to produce probes with greater than 109 cpm/µg in 10 min reactions. The kit includes sufficient reagents for 30 reactions.

• Fast, 10 min reaction time
• Elimination of Klenow exonuclease activity maximizes specific activity
• Improved labeling kinetics maximizes yields
• Flexible—both -dATP and -dCTP buffers supplied with each kit
• Decamers produce greater primer-template stability

Don't Trade Specific Activity for Yield

There is a trade-off between probe yield and probe specific activity when using the random-priming method for labeling DNA. Both limiting nucleotide and template mass affect probe yield. Until the labeled nucleotide becomes limiting, the larger the amount of DNA template used, the greater the yield of probe. However, once the labeled nucleotide becomes limiting, additional template will only result in lower specific activity, since the unlabeled template competes with the labeled probe for target. The accompanying figure shows the effect of probe-specific activity on the limits of target detection. Note that probe made with the smallest amount of template DNA (6.25 ng) was able to detect target present at 1/4 to 1/8 the level as the probe made with the largest amount of template (100 ng).

Maximal Yields of High Specific Activity Probes
The DECAprime™ II DNA Labeling Kit produces probes with maximum specific activity even when the DNA template is impure or the quantity is unknown or very low. Data shows that low template amounts require long incubation times to reach maximum specific activity. Under these conditions, extended reaction times will increase both the yield and the specific activity of the probe.

Accessory Products:
The NucAway™ Spin Columns (SKU# AM10070) are recommended for probe purification.

ARES™ Alexa Fluor™ 594 DNA Labeling Kit Invitrogen™

The ARES™ Alexa Fluor® DNA Labeling Kit provides a versatile, two-step method for labeling DNA with our Alexa Fluor® dyes. In the first step, an amine-modified nucleotide is incorporated into DNA using conventional enzymatic labeling methods. In the second step, the amine-modified DNA is chemically labeled using our proprietary amine-reactive Alexa Fluor® 594 dye. The labeled probes can be used for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and microarray techniques. We offer ARES™ Alexa Fluor® DNA Labeling Kits in five fluorescent colors, and each kit provides sufficient reagents for 5 to 10 labeling reactions of 1 to 5 µg DNA each.

ARES™ Alexa Fluor® Labeling Kit Specifications:
• Dye (Ex/Em): Alexa Fluor® 594 (588/615 nm)
• Achieves more uniform, consistent labeling than techniques for enzymatic incorporation of labeled nucleotides
• Typically produces one dye per 12–20 bases
• Optimal for FISH and microarrays


More Uniform Labeling With ARES™ Labeling Kits
ARES™ Alexa Fluor® Labeling Kits employ a two-step labeling technology—nick translation to enzymatically incorporate an amine-modified nucleotide (aminoallyl dUTP) followed by chemical labeling with Alexa Fluor® dyes. This method achieves uniformity and consistency of labeling that is difficult to obtain with conventional enzymatic incorporation of labeled nucleotides.
We also offer this two-step labeling technology in our FISH Tag™ DNA and FISH Tag™ RNA Kits, which provide a complete workflow solution for FISH applications, including all of the reagents for probe synthesis, labeling, purification and an anti-fade reagent to help protect the signal during fluorescence microscopy.

More Options for Nucleic Acid Labeling
To review various options for nucleic acid labeling (including DNA and RNA FISH), review Labeling Oligonucleotides and Nucleic Acids—Section 8.2 in the Molecular Probes® Handbook.

For Research Use Only. Not intended for human or animal therapeutic or diagnostic use.

BioPrime™ Array CGH Genomic Labeling Module Invitrogen™

The BioPrime® Plus Array CGH Genomic Labeling Systems are a high-performance labeling kits that enable reproducible labeling of genomic DNA samples for array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH). Available in both indirect and direct labeling formats, the BioPrime® Plus Array CGH Genomic Labeling Systems provide a flexible solution to your genomic labeling needs. Using the
BioPrime® Plus Array CGH Genomic Labeling Systems, you can expect:
––High yields of fluorescently labeled genomic DNA
–signal-to-noise ratios
–detection of gene copy number variations (Figure 1)


These systems combine a highly concentrated exo-Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I and random primers to effectively label genomic targets for sensitive genomic profiling experiments. Exo-Klenow is a mutant of the large fragment of the DNA polymerase I holoenzyme that has both 5´ - 3´ and 3´ - 5´ exonuclease activity removed. The lack of exonuclease activity makes this enzyme ideal for use in random priming protocols, enabling robust yields and efficient incorporation of Alexa Fluor® AHA fluorescent nucleotides. In the BioPrime® Plus Array CGH Genomic Labeling Systems, random octamers anneal to template DNA, providing priming sites for the exo- Klenow enzyme. Alexa Fluor® AHA modified nucleotides (direct labeling) or amino-allyl modified nucleotides (indirect labeling) are incorporated as the polymerase extends from the priming sites. The labeled samples are then purified to remove contaminants prior to denaturing and hybridization to a microarray (direct labeling systems) or coupled to the Alexa Fluor® NHS ester (indirect labeling systems) prior to hybridization (Figure 2).

SuperScript™ Direct cDNA Labeling System Invitrogen™

The SuperScript® Direct cDNA Labeling System is a microarray labeling kit that combines the performance of SuperScript® III Reverse Transcriptase (RT) with the simplicity of direct labeling to yield highly fluorescent labeled cDNA that accurately represents your initial mRNA sample. In this method (Figure 1), anchored oligo(dT) anneals to the mRNA template. SuperScript® III RT extends from the priming site, incorporating fluorescent dNTPs directly to produce labeled cDNA. Template RNA is degraded by base hydrolysis. Free nucleotides and other contaminants are removed using purification columns before hybridization to a microarray.

The SuperScript® Direct cDNA Labeling System uses 800 units of SuperScript® III RT to generate:

• High cDNA yields without an additional enzyme "spike" (Figure 2)
• Strong signal intensities (Figure 3)
• A fast and simple protocol that minimizes "hands on" time and provides superior reproducibility

Random Primers DNA Labeling System Invitrogen™

The Random Primers DNA Labeling System is ideal for radioactively labeling DNA, particularly fragments <1 kb. The Random Primers DNA Labeling System:
––Yields >109 cpm/µg control DNA using [ α-32 P]-dCTP
–25 ng of DNA in one reaction


Performance and Quality Testing: Incorporation of a radioactively labeled nucleotide is verified using control DNA in a random primers labeling reaction.

BioPrime™ Total Genomic Labeling System Invitrogen™

The BioPrime® Total Genomic Labeling Systems are complete genomic DNA labeling kits designed for use in array comparative genomic hybridization applications (aCGH) that allow for better call rates with precious samples. The BioPrime® Total Genomic Labeling Systems offer users the following advantages:

- Higher signal to noise with Alexa Fluor® 3 and 5 dyes
- Less channel bias due to novel reaction formulation
- Widest range of input material (50ng - 3µg)
- Simplified workflow with master mix formulation


These complete, all-inclusive kits are optimized to work across the widest range of sample input material with no need for pre-amplification. Highly concentrated exo-Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I in a component limited reaction allow for consistent, robust DNA yields of ~ 8 µg with as little as 50 ng of genomic DNA input. An optimized dye labeled nucleotide mix with new dNTP linkers, novel, application-specific Alexa Fluor® 3 and 5 dyes, and improved buffer chemistry reduce labeling variation and increase signal to noise on arrays. Excitation and emission spectra of Alexa Fluor® 3 and 5 dyes are suited for conventional two color scanners with no need to change settings. New master mix formulation streamlines reaction set-ups increasing consistency. Complete kits are batch tested to assure quality in performance from lot to lot.
Contents and Storage:
The simplified kits contains Alexa Fluor® 3 and Alexa Fluor® 5 2x reaction mix, Exo-Klenow fragment (40 U/ µl), 5 mM EDTA, TE Buffer, and control DNA (Salmon Sperm). Store at -80°C for long term storage. The 2X Reaction Mixes may be stored at +4°C for up to 4 weeks and should be protected from light. The BioPrime® Total Genomic Labeling Systems also contain PurelinkTM Genomic DNA purification columns and purification buffers (the BioPrime® Total Genomic Labeling Module does not). Store at room temperature. All components are guaranteed for 6 months when properly stored.

SuperScript™ Plus Direct cDNA Labeling System with Alexa Fluor™-aha-dUTPs Invitrogen™

The SuperScript® Plus Direct cDNA Labeling System is a microarray labeling kit that combines the superior performance of SuperScript® III Reverse Transcriptase (RT) with the simplicity of direct labeling. In place of an enzyme spike-in, the streamlined protocol incorporates balanced sets of novel, array-optimized, nucleotides conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 555 and 647 dyes. This results in more reproducible array data with higher correlation coefficients than using standalone reagents. The SuperScript® Plus Direct cDNA Labeling System provides:

• Optimized, all-inclusive direct labeling with balanced aha-Alexa Fluor® nucleotides, enabling higher numbers of array positives
• Improved correlation coefficients for more accurate data (Figure 1)
• Low elution purification columns included for ease of use

In the SuperScript® Plus cDNA Labeling method, anchored oligo(dT) anneals to the mRNA template (Figure 2). SuperScript® III RT extends from the priming site, incorporating dUTP labeled with Alexa Fluor® dye directly to produce labeled cDNA. Template RNA is degraded by base hydrolysis. Free nucleotides and other contaminants are removed using low-elution volume purification columns before hybridization to the microarray.

Alexa Fluor™ 488 Oligonucleotide Amine Labeling Kit Invitrogen™

The Alexa Fluor 488 Oligonucleotide Amine Labeling Kit provides a simple method for labeling amine-modified oligonucleotides with our bright, photostable, green-fluorescent Alexa Fluor 488 dye (which is spectrally similar to fluorescein). Oligonucleotides labeled with this kit can be used as primers and as probes in hybridization experiments but should not be used for automated DNA sequencing since the Alexa Fluor dye in the kit is supplied as mixed isomers. The kits have been optimized for labeling reactions with 50 µg of a 5'-amine—modified oligonucleotide, 18 to 24 bases in length.
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