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Historical and General Reviews


  • Resch-Genger U, Grabolle M, Cavaliere-Jaricot S et al. (2008) Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent labels [review]. Nat Methods 5:763–775.
  • Pinaud F, Michalet X, Bentolila LA et al. (2006) Advances in fluorescence imaging with quantum dot bio-probes [review]. Biomaterials 27:1679–1687.
  • Alivisatos AP, Gu W, Larabell C (2005) Quantum dots as cellular probes [review]. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 7:55–76.
  • Medintz IL, Uyeda HT, Goldman ER et al. (2005) Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing [review]. Nat Materials 435–446.
  • Alivisatos AP (1998) Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots. Science 271: 933–937.
  • Bruchez M Jr, Moronne M, Gin P et al. (1998) Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels. Science 281:2013–2016.
  • Chan WC, Nie S (1998) Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection. Science 281:2016–2018.


Imaging: Fixed Cell/ICC


  • Chou LY, Fischer HC, Perrault SD et al. (2009) Visualizing quantum dots in biological samples using silver staining. Anal Chem 81:4560–4565.
  • Hennig S, van de Linde S, Heilemann M et al. (2009) Quantum dot triexciton imaging with three-dimensional subdiffraction resolution. Nano Lett 9:2466–2470.
  • Kingeter LM, Schaefer BC (2009) Expanding the multicolor capabilities of basic confocal microscopes by employing red and near-infrared quantum dot conjugates. BMC Biotechnol 9:49.
  • Deerinck TJ (2008) The application of fluorescent quantum dots to confocal, multiphoton, and electron microscopic imaging. Toxicol Pathol 36:112–116.
  • Williams Y, Byrne S, Bashir M et al. (2008) Comparison of three cell fixation methods for high content analysis assays utilizing quantum dots. J Microsc 232:91–98.
  • Deerinck TJ, Giepmans BN, Smarr BL et al. (2007) Light and electron microscopic localization of multiple proteins using quantum dots. Methods Mol Biol 374:43–53.
  • Sosinsky GE, Giepmans BN, Deerinck TJ et al. (2007) Markers for correlated light and electron microscopy [review]. Methods Cell Biol 79:575–591.
  • Zheng J, Ghazani AA, Song Q et al. (2006) Cellular imaging and surface marker labeling of hematopoietic cells using quantum dot bioconjugates. Lab Hematol 12(2):94–98.
  • Giepmans BN, Deerinck TJ, Smarr BL et al. (2005) Correlated light and electron microscopic imaging of multiple endogenous proteins using quantum dots. Nat Methods 2:743–749.
  • Wu X, Bruchez MP (2004) Labeling cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dot conjugates. Methods Cell Biol 75:171–183.
  • Watson A, Wu X, Bruchez M (2003) Lighting up cells with quantum dots. Biotechniques 34:296–300, 302–303.


Imaging: Histochemistry and Pathology


  • Li R, Dai H, Wheeler TM et al. (2009) Prognostic value of Akt-1 in human prostate cancer: a computerized quantitative assessment with quantum dot technology. Clin Cancer Res 15:3568–3573.
  • Caldwell ML, Moffitt RA, Liu J et al. (2008) Simple quantification of multiplexed quantum dot staining in clinical tissue samples. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 1907–1910.
  • Sweeney E, Ward TH, Gray N et al. (2008) Quantitative multiplexed quantum dot immunohistochemistry. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 374:181–186.
  • Tholouli E, Sweeney E, Barrow E et al. (2008) Quantum dots light up pathology [review]. J Pathol 216:275–285.
  • True LD, Gao X (2007) Quantum dots for molecular pathology: their time has arrived. J Mol Diagn 9:7–11.
  • Xing Y, Chaudry Q, Shen C et al. (2007) Bioconjugated quantum dots for multiplexed and quantitative immunohistochemistry. Nat Protocols 2:1152–1165.
  • Ghazani AA, Lee JA, Klostranec J et al. (2006) High-throughput quantification of protein expression of cancer antigens in tissue microarray using quantum dot nanocrystals. Nano Lett 6(12):2881–2886.
  • Jaiswal JK, Mattoussi H, Mauro JM et al. (2003) Long-term multiple color imaging of live cells using quantum dot bioconjugates. Nat Biotechnol 21:47–51.


FISH


  • Choi Y, Kim HP, Hong SM et al. (2009) In situ visualization of gene expression using polymer-coated quantum-dot DNA conjugates. Small Jun 10 (epub).
  • Kapoor V, Hakim FT, Rehman N et al. (2009) Quantum dots thermal stability improves simultaneous phenotype-specific telomere length measurement by FISH-flow cytometry. J Immunol Methods 344:6–14.
  • Hua Q, Kwong Y, Nuneza E et al. (2008) Enhancing nuclear receptor-induced transcription requires nuclear motor and LSD1-dependent gene networking in interchromatin granules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:19199–19204.
  • Ma L, Wu SM, Huang J et al. (2008) Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on maize metaphase chromosomes with quantum dot-labeled DNA conjugates. Chromosoma 7:181–187.
  • Byers RJ, Di Vizio D, O’Connell F et al. (2007) Semiautomated multiplexed quantum dot-based in situ hybridization and spectral deconvolution. J Mol Diagn 9:20–29.
  • Jiang Z, Li R, Todd NW et al. (2007) Detecting genomic aberrations by fluorescence in situ hybridization with quantum dots-labeled probes. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 12:4254–4259.
  • Knoll JH (2007) Human metaphase chromosome FISH using quantum dot conjugates. Methods Mol Biol 374:55–66.
  • Bentolila LA, Weiss S (2006) Single-step multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization using semiconductor quantum dot-DNA conjugates. Cell Biochem Biophys 45:59–70.
  • Tholouli E, Hoyland JA, Di Vizio D et al. (2006) Imaging of multiple mRNA targets using quantum dot based in situ hybridization and spectral deconvolution in clinical biopsies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 348:628–636.
  • Chan P, Yuen T, Ruf F et al. (2005) Method for multiplex cellular detection of mRNAs using quantum dot fluorescent in situ hybridization. Nucleic Acids Res 33:e161.
  • Tanke HJ, Dirks RW, Raap T (2005) FISH and immunocytochemistry: towards visualising single target molecules in living cells [review]. Curr Opin Biotechnol 16:49–54.


Live Cell Imaging



  • Freeman R, Gill R, Shweky I et al. (2009) Biosensing and probing of intracellular metabolic pathways by NADH-sensitive quantum dots. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl (2009) 48:309–313.
  • Geng L, Zhang HL, Peng HB (2009) The formation of acetylcholine receptor clusters visualized with quantum dots. BMC Neurosci 10(1):80.
  • Walling MA, Novak JA, Shepard JRE (2009) Quantum dots for live cell and in vivo imaging. Int. J Mol Sci 10:441–491.
  • Yum K, Na S, Xiang Y et al. (2009) Mechanochemical delivery and dynamic tracking of fluorescent quantum dots in the cytoplasm and nucleus of living cells. Nano Lett 9:2193–2198.
  • Zhang Q, Li Y, Tsien RW (2009) The dynamic control of kiss-and-run and vesicular reuse probed with single nanoparticles. Science 323:1448–1453.
  • Medintz IL, Pons T, Delehanty JB et al. (2008) Intracellular delivery of quantum dot-protein cargos mediated by cell penetrating peptides. Bioconjug Chem 19:1785–1795.
  • Ram S, Prabhat P, Chao J et al. (2008) High-accuracy 3D quantum dot tracking with multifocal plane microscopy for the study of fast intracellular dynamics in live cells. Biophys J 95:6025–6043.
  • Derfus AM, Chen AA, Min DH et al. (2007) Targeted quantum dot conjugates for siRNA delivery. Bioconjug Chem 18:1391–1396.
  • Chen AA, Derfus AM, Khetani SR et al. (2005) Quantum dots to monitor RNAi delivery and improve gene silencing. Nucleic Acids Res 33(22):e190:
  • Jaiswal JK, Mattoussi H, Mauro JM et al. (2003) Long-term multiple-color imaging of live cells using quantum dot bioconjugates. Nat Biotechnol 21:47–51.
  • Byassee TA, Chan WC, Nie S (2000) Probing single molecules in single living cells. Anal Chem 72:5606–5611.
  • Lacoste TD, Michalet X, Pinaud F et al. (2000) Ultrahigh-resolution multicolor colocalization of single fluorescent probes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:9461–9466.


Cell Tracking and Stem Cell Labeling



  • Delehanty JB, Mattoussi H, Medintz IL (2009) Delivering quantum dots into cells: strategies, progress and remaining issues. Anal Bioanal Chem 393:1091–1105.
  • Ohyabu Y, Kaul Z, Yoshioka T et al. (2009) Stable and nondisruptive in vitro/in vivo labeling of mesenchymal stem cells by internalizing quantum dots. Hum Gene Ther 20:217–224.
  • Chen B, Liu Q, Zhang Y et al. (2008) Transmembrane delivery of the cell-penetrating peptide-conjugated semiconductor quantum dots. Langmuir 24:11866–11871.
  • Ferreira L, Karp JM, Nobre L et al. (2008) New opportunities: the use of nanotechnologies to manipulate and track stem cells [review]. Cell Stem Cell 3:136–146.
  • Schormann W, Hammersen FJ, Brulport M et al. (2008) Tracking of human cells in mice. Histochem Cell Biol 130:329–338.
  • Lin S, Xie X, Patel MR et al. (2007) Quantum dot imaging for embryonic stem cells. BMC Biotechnol 7:67.
  • Muller-Borer BJ, Collins MC, Gunst PR et al. (2007) Quantum dot labeling of mesenchymal stem cells. J Nanobiotechnology 5:9.
  • Rosen AB, Kelly DJ, Schuldt AJ et al. (2007) Finding fluorescent needles in the cardiac haystack: tracking human mesenchymal stem cells labeled with quantum dots for quantitative in vivo three-dimensional fluorescence analysis. Stem Cells 25:2128–2138.
  • Slotkin JR, Chakrabarti L, Dai HN et al. (2007) In vivo quantum dot labeling of mammalian stem and progenitor cells. Dev Dyn 236:3393–3401.
  • Sykova E, Jendelova P (2007) In vivo tracking of stem cells in brain and spinal cord injury [review]. Prog Brain Res 161:367–383.


Single-Molecule Tracking



  • Jablonski AE, Humphries WH, Payne CK (2009) Pyrenebutyrate-mediated delivery of quantum dots across the plasma membrane of living cells. J Phys Chem B 113:405–408.
  • Ishihama Y, Funatsu T (2009) Single-molecule tracking of quantum dot-labeled mRNAs in a cell nucleus.  Biochem Biophys Res Commun 381:33–38.
  • Saint-Michel E, Giannone G, Choquet D et al. (2009) Neurexin/neuroligin interaction kinetics characterized by counting single cell-surface attached quantum dots. Biophys J 97(2):480–489.
  • Yamagishi M, Ishihama Y, Shirasaki Y et al. (2009) Single-molecule imaging of beta-actin mRNAs in the cytoplasm of a living cell. Exp Cell Res 315:1142–1147.
  • Kukura P, Celebrano M, Renn A (2009) Imaging a single quantum dot when it is dark. Nano Lett 9:926–929.
  • Cronin B, de Wet B, Wallace MI (2009) Lucky imaging: improved localization accuracy for single-molecule imaging. Biophys J 96:2912–2917.
  • Yoo J, Kambara T, Gonda K (2008) Intracellular imaging of targeted proteins labeled with quantum dots. Exp Cell Res 314:3563–3569.
  • Chang YP, Pinaud F, Antelman J (2008) Tracking biomolecules in live cells using quantum dots [review]. J Biophotonics 1:287–298.
  • Howarth M, Liu W, Puthenveetil S et al. (2008) Monovalent, reduced-size quantum dots for imaging receptors on living cells. Nat Methods 5:397–399.
  • Watanabe TM, Higuchi H (2007) Stepwise movements in vesicle transport of HER2 by motor proteins in living cells. Biophys J 92:4109–4120.
  • Kaji N, Tokeshi M, Baba Y (2007) Single-molecule measurements with a single quantum dot [review]. Chem Rec 7:295–304.
  • Groc L, Lafourcade M, Heine M et al. (2007) Surface trafficking of neurotransmitter receptor: comparison between single-molecule/quantum dot strategies [review]. J Neurosci 27:12433–12437.
  • Dahan M (2006) From analog to digital: exploring cell dynamics with single quantum dots. Histochem Cell Biol 125:451–456.
  • Yeh HC, Chao SY, Ho YP (2005) Single-molecule detection and probe strategies for rapid and ultrasensitive genomic detection [review]. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 6:453–461.
  • Guo P, Wei C (2005) Quantum dots for robust and simple assays using single particles in nanodevices [review]. Nanomedicine 1:122–124.
  • Crut A, Géron-Landre B, Bonnet I et al. (2005) Detection of single DNA molecules by multicolor quantum dot end labeling. Nucleic Acids Res 33:98.
  • Dahan M, Lévi S, Luccardini C et al. (2003) Diffusion dynamics of glycine receptors revealed by single quantum dot tracking. Science 302:442–445.


In Vivo Whole-Animal Imaging



  • Farias PM, Santos BS, Fontes A (2009) Semiconductor fluorescent quantum dots: efficient biolabels in cancer diagnostics. Methods Mol Biol 544:407–419.
  • Jayagopal A, Su YR, Blakemore JL et al. (2009) Quantum dot-mediated imaging of atherosclerosis. Nanotechnology 20:165102.
  • Khalessi AA, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML (2009) Neurosurgery and quantum dots: part I—state of the art. Neurosurgery 64:1015–1028.
  • Liu K, Victora GD, Schwickert TA et al. (2009) In vivo analysis of dendritic cell development and homeostasis. Science 324:392–397.
  • Mulder WJ, Castermans K, van Beijnum JR et al. (2009) Molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis using alphavbeta3 integrin targeted multimodal quantum dots. Angiogenesis 12:17–24.
  • Texier I, Josser V (2009) In vivo imaging of quantum dots. Methods Mol Biol 544:393–406.
  • Zhang H, Zeng X, Li Q et al. (2009) Fluorescent tumour imaging of type I IGF receptor in vivo: comparison of antibody-conjugated quantum dots and small-molecule fluorophore. Br J Cancer 101:71–79.
  • Cai W, Chen X (2008) Preparation of peptide-conjugated quantum dots for tumor vasculature-targeted imaging. Nat Protoc 3:89–96.
  • Diagaradjane P, Orenstein-Cardona JM, Colón-Casasnovas NE et al. (2008) Imaging epidermal growth factor receptor expression in vivo: pharmacokinetic and biodistribution characterization of a bioconjugated quantum dot nanoprobe. Clin Cancer Res 14:731–741.
  • Gao X, Chen J, Chen J et al. (2008) Quantum dots bearing lectin-functionalized nanoparticles as a platform for in vivo brain imaging. Bioconjug Chem 19:2189–2195.
  • Xing Y, Rao J (2008) Quantum dot bioconjugates for in vitro diagnostics & in vivo imaging. Cancer Biomark 4:307–319.
  • Chakraborty SK, Fitzpatrick JA, Phillippi JA et al. (2007) Cholera toxin B-conjugated quantum dots for live cell labeling. Nano Lett 7:2618–2626.
  • Gao X, Dave SR (2007) Quantum dots for cancer molecular imaging [review]. Adv Exp Med Biol 620:57–73.
  • Li ZB, Cai W, Chen X (2007) Semiconductor quantum dots for in vivo imaging [review]. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 7:2567–581.
  • Lidke DS, Nagy P, Arndt-Jovin D (2007) In vivo imaging using quantum-dot-conjugated probes. In Curr Protoc Cell Biol Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Chapter 25:Unit 25.1.
  • Lieleg O, López-García M, Semmrich C et al. (2007) Specific integrin labeling in living cells using functionalized nanocrystals. Small 3:1560–1565.
  • Yu X, Chen L, Li K et al. (2007) Immunofluorescence detection with quantum dot bioconjugates for hepatoma in vivo. J Biomed Opt (2007) 12:014008.
  • Edgar R, McKinstry M, Hwang J et al. (2006) High-sensitivity bacterial detection using biotin-tagged phage and quantum dot nanocomplexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:4841–4845.
  • Le Gac S, Vermes I, van den Berg A (2006) Quantum dots-based probes conjugated to annexin V for photostable apoptosis detection and imaging. Nano Lett 6:1863–1869.
  • Manabe N, Hoshino A, Liang YQ et al. (2006) Quantum dot as a drug tracer in vivo. IEEE Trans Nanobioscience 5:263–267.
  • Yezhelyev MV, Gao X, Xing Y et al. (2006) Emerging use of nanoparticles in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer [review]. Lancet Oncol 7(8):657–667.
  • Rieger S, Kulkarni RP, Darcy D et al. (2005) Quantum dots are powerful multipurpose vital labeling agents in zebrafish embryos. Dev Dyn 234:670–681.
  • Ballou B, Lagerholm BC, Ernst LA et al. (2004) Noninvasive imaging of quantum dots in mice. Bioconjug Chem 15:79–86.
  • Voura EB, Jaiswal JK, Mattoussi H et al. (2004) Tracking metastatic tumor cell extravasation with quantum dot nanocrystals and fluorescence emission-scanning microscopy. Nat Med 10:993–998.
  • Larson DR, Zipfel WR, Williams RM et al. (2003) Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo. Science 300:1434–1436.
  • Akerman ME, Chan WC, Laakkonen P et al. (2002) Nanocrystal targeting in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:12617–12621.


Flow Cytometry



  • Kapoor V, Hakim FT, Rehman N et al. (2009) Quantum dots thermal stability improves simultaneous phenotype-specific telomere length measurement by FISH-flow cytometry. J Immunol Meth 344:6–14.
  • Smith RA, Giorgio TD (2009) Quantitative measurement of multifunctional quantum dot binding to cellular targets using flow cytometry. Cytometry A 75:465–474.
  • Abrams B, Dubrovsky T (2007) Quantum dots in flow cytometry. Methods Mol Biol 374:185–203.
  • Chattopadhyay PK, Yu J, Roederer M (2007) Application of quantum dots to multicolor flow cytometry. Methods Mol Biol 374:175–184.
  • Bocsi J, Lenz D, Mittag A et al. (2006) Automated four-color analysis of leukocytes by scanning fluorescence microscopy using quantum dots. Cytometry A 69:131–134.
  • Chattopadhyay PK, Price DA, Harper TF et al. (2006) Quantum dot semiconductor nanocrystals for immunophenotyping by polychromatic flow cytometry. Nat Medicine 12:972–977.
  • Zheng J, Ghazani AA, Song Q et al. (2006) Cellular imaging and surface marker labeling of hematopoietic cells using quantum dot bioconjugates. Lab Hematol 12:94–98.


Westerns



  • Scholl B, Liu HY, Long BR et al. (2009) Single-particle quantum dot imaging achieves ultrasensitive detection capabilities for western immunoblot analysis. ACS Nano 3:1318–1328:
  • Bakalova R, Zhelev Z, Ohba H (2005) Quantum dot-based western blot technology for ultrasensitive detection of tracer proteins. J Am Chem Soc 127:9328–9329.
  • Ornberg RL, Harper TF, Liu H (2005) Western blot analysis with quantum dot fluorescence technology: a sensitive and quantitative method for multiplexed proteomics. Nat Methods 2:79–81.


Arrays and Microplate Assays (Proteases, FRET-Based Assays, etc.)


  • Boeneman K, Mei BC, Dennis AM et al. (2009) Sensing caspase-3 activity with quantum dot fluorescent protein assemblies. J Am Chem Soc 131:3828–3829.
  • Giraud G, Schulze H, Bachmann TT et al. (2009) Fluorescence lifetime imaging of quantum dot-labeled DNA microarrays. Int J Mol Sci 10:1930–1941.
  • Galvez EM, Zimmermann B, Rombach-Riegraf V et al. (2008) Fluorescence resonance energy transfer in single-enzyme molecules with a quantum dot as donor. Eur Biophys J 37:1367–1371.
  • Gokarna A, Jin LH, Hwang JS et al. (2008) Quantum dot-based protein micro- and nanoarrays for detection of prostate cancer biomarkers. Proteomics 8:1809–1818.
  • Huang S, Xiao Q, He ZK et al. (2008) A high sensitive and specific QDs FRET bioprobe for MNase. Chem Commun (Camb) 45:5990–5992.
  • Pattani VP, Li C, Desai TA, Vu TQ (2008) Microcontact printing of quantum dot bioconjugate arrays for localized capture and detection of biomolecules. Biomed Microdevices 10:367–374.
  • Koeppel F, Jaiswal JK, Simon SM (2007) Quantum dot-based sensor for improved detection of apoptotic cells. Nanomed 2(1):71–78.
  • Wang L, Lofton C, Popp M, Tan W (2007) Using luminescent nanoparticles as staining probes for Affymetrix GeneChips. Bioconjug Chem 18:610–613.
  • Chang E, Miller JS, Sun J et al. (2005) Protease-activated quantum dot probes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 334:1317–1321.
  • Gerion D, Chen FQ, Kannan B et al. (2003) Room-temperature single-nucleotide polymorphism and multiallele DNA detection using fluorescent nanocrystals and microarrays. Anal Chem 75:4766–4772.