Word map of Heterocycle formation reactions in Organic Chemistry

A heterocyclic compound is a cyclic compound that has at least one element other than carbon, e.g., nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur, as part of its ring structure. Its general structure resembles that of cyclic organic compounds that contain only carbon. However, the presence of heteroatoms gives heterocyclic compounds distinct physical and chemical properties.

One of the earliest named reactions in this category was discovered in 1882 by A. Hantzsch, who condensed two equivalents of ethyl acetoacetate with one of acetaldehyde and ammonia to obtain a fully substituted symmetrical dihydropyridine.

In this series, we feature the following heterocycle formation reactions:

Other named reactions featuring heterocycle formation include:

  • Bartoli indole synthesis
  • Biginelli reaction
  • Bischler-Napieralski isoquinoline synthesis
  • Ciamician-Dennstedt rearrangement
  • Combes quinolone synthesis
  • Dimroth rearrangement
  • Feist-Benary furan synthesis
  • Heine reaction
  • Hetero Diels-Alder reaction
  • Hofmann-Loffler-Freytag reaction
  • Krohnke pyridine synthesis
  • Larock indole synthesis
  • Madelung indole synthesis
  • Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis
  • Paterno-Buchi reaction
  • Skraup and Doebner-Miller quinolone synthesis
  • Von Pechmann reaction