The nucleophilic substitution is a reaction in which an electron-rich nucleophile reacts with the positive charge of an atom or group of atoms to replace a leaving group. The positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.
Nucleophilic substitution reactions are important in that they facilitate the interconversion of functional groups. Of particular importance are the reactions of alkylhalides (R-X) and alcohols (R-OH).
One of the earliest named reactions using nucleophilic substitution is the Gabriel synthesis.
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