Quickly and accurately understand your porous materials

Porosity is present in many materials. Whether it is a defect or a feature, its quantification is critical. For example, understanding the various types of porosity defects can inform adjustments in the manufacturing process in order to improve the material's properties. In a material that is porous by design, the expected level of porosity can be adapted through conception changes. Imaging techniques such as microCT, FIB-SEM, SEM, and TEM allow for analysis of porous materials to quantify micro pores, sponge-type voids, large macro-voids, inclusions, and so forth.

Thermo Scientific Avizo Software is an all-in-one image analysis platform that allows for the visualization, processing, and quantification of porous materials. Avizo Software enables the detection and classification of various types of porosity (for example, connected vs isolated; macro pores vs micro pores), even on images with complex artifacts (for example, pore back effect in FIB-SEM). Many porosity properties and statistics can be calculated, such as volume fraction, largest ball fitting through a given pore, pore size distribution, pore throat size distribution, pore orientation, shape factor, and more. Porosity can be turned into a model (Pore Network Model), allowing for rapid understanding and exploration of the pore space, that features spheres or ellipsoids-and-sticks type visualization with property mapping. Avizo Software also allows the direct calculation of the absolute permeability of the material from the segmented pore space.

Imaging data

Workflow using Avizo Software

Processing

Workflow using Avizo Software

Visualization

Workflow using Avizo Software

Analysis

Workflow using Avizo Software

Customization

Confidence

Thanks to powerful segmentation and image processing capabilities and workflows, and after 20+ years of collaboration with the scientific community and thousands of researchers, it has been now proven that our digital imaging-based workflows provide reliable answers to industrial and scientific problems.

Customization

Customization

Because your needs are unique and keep evolving, our software solutions are fully flexible and open to customization. Thanks to our scripting interface (Python, TCL), bridge with MATLAB, and our programming API, you can expand our software solution and integrate your own IP (Intellectual Property). And, if needed, our professional service team can help you design unique solutions tailored to your needs.

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Support

Thanks to our dedicated professional support team, you get access to our top experts to ensure that no question is left unanswered. And with our training, consulting options, and ever-expanding collection of tutorials and how-to’s, you can reduce your learning curve and focus on getting the answers you are pursuing.

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Automation

Thanks to our automation capabilities, and with the addition of our always expanding online repository of add-ons (Xtra Gallery), you can encapsulate repeatable workflows into easy-to-reproduce recipes. With the addition of artificial intelligence, analysis can be performed by non-image processing experts, allowing them to save time on complex analysis while ensuring results consistency. 


Use cases

Porosity and permeability of fiber reinforced concrete

Fibers are used in concrete to increase its structural integrity, enhancing toughness, flexural strength, and resistance to shrinkage-induced cracking. However, the inclusion of fiber influences the concrete's porosity and permeability, which directly impacts its durability.

In this example, the porosity and permeability of a fiber reinforced concrete is analyzed. The concrete pore space is identified, and the connected vs isolated porosity is classified. The isolated porosity is represented as a pore network model, and the permeability of the concrete is evaluated. The streamlines representing the velocity field in the permeability experiment simulation are visualized passing through the sample. The fibers are also identified thanks to a dedicated algorithm for fiber segmentation.

Ceramic biomaterials analysis for bone Tissue Engineering (TE)

For bone TE applications, the selection of the scaffold is a crucial parameter. According to the bone structure, a highly porous, open-pored, and fully interconnected geometry is desired. 
In this study, four different ceramic biomaterials (Sponceram , Osseolive, Cerasorb, and 45S5-Bioglass) have been systematically analyzed and evaluated as regards their applicability for bone Tissue Engineering.

 Read the article

Ceramic biomaterials
Pore network analysis of Sponceram® ceramic biomaterials. 
Courtesy of Zellwerk GmbH

Characterization of porous medium (SiC foam)

In situ draining experiments were carried out in order to understand the nature of the residual static liquid holdup in SiC foams. The goal of these experiments is to enable better future modeling and design of structured reactors that are based on SiC foams.

Read the article co-written with university of Manchester, SICAT

SiC foam

Multi-length scale characterization and simulation in tubular SOFC anodes

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are one of the most promising electrochemical devices for the efficient co-generation of heat and electricity of fuel gases. Advantages of this type of fuel cell include fuel flexibility, low emissions, and stability. The electrochemical performance is closely related to the microstructure of the electrodes, where the chemical reaction and mass transport take place.

This video demonstrates the concept of multi-length scale imaging and simulation of a novel-structured tubular SOFC anode to obtain effective mass transport. Microstructure parameters such as tortuosity and permeability are measured from the porous phase of the electrode extraction and are then used for the material definition of the solid region in the full-thickness anode simulation. Thus, the characteristic tortuosity, permeability, and effective transport parameter can be estimated and further used in the electrochemical performance simulation.

Courtesy of Dr. Xuekun Lu, University College London

Bubble analysis in food

Bubbles in food create an aerated structure that enhances the product appearance and properties (smoothness, creaminess, crispness, etc.). Avizo Software provides efficient methods of segmenting the bubbles and quantifying both their attributes and size distribution.

Avizo Software's Pore Network Modeling allows the creation of an equivalent network model of the porous distribution for advanced analysis of the bubbles' interconnections and properties.

Learn more

Ice cream matric - bubble analysis
The powerful Avizo Software porosity analysis toolset exposes the porous network and matrix of ice cream.
Courtesy of Irstea

Nanoporous gold

Nanoporous gold is a high-interest material in the field of catalytic and sensor applications. It can be imagined as a porous metal sponge with pore sizes in the range of a few tens of a nanometer (one thousand times smaller than the diameter of a human hair).

Image stack acquired with Helios 600 FIBSEM, Slice&View G2 and visualized with Avizo Software - all by Dr. K. Thiel, Fraunhofer IFAM.

Sample courtesy of K.R. Mangipudi, Institute for Materials Physics, University of Goettingen. Voxel size: 10x13x10nm, whole analysed volume size: ca. 6x2x1.3 µm.

Nanoporous gold

Porosity and permeability of fiber reinforced concrete

Fibers are used in concrete to increase its structural integrity, enhancing toughness, flexural strength, and resistance to shrinkage-induced cracking. However, the inclusion of fiber influences the concrete's porosity and permeability, which directly impacts its durability.

In this example, the porosity and permeability of a fiber reinforced concrete is analyzed. The concrete pore space is identified, and the connected vs isolated porosity is classified. The isolated porosity is represented as a pore network model, and the permeability of the concrete is evaluated. The streamlines representing the velocity field in the permeability experiment simulation are visualized passing through the sample. The fibers are also identified thanks to a dedicated algorithm for fiber segmentation.

Ceramic biomaterials analysis for bone Tissue Engineering (TE)

For bone TE applications, the selection of the scaffold is a crucial parameter. According to the bone structure, a highly porous, open-pored, and fully interconnected geometry is desired. 
In this study, four different ceramic biomaterials (Sponceram , Osseolive, Cerasorb, and 45S5-Bioglass) have been systematically analyzed and evaluated as regards their applicability for bone Tissue Engineering.

 Read the article

Ceramic biomaterials
Pore network analysis of Sponceram® ceramic biomaterials. 
Courtesy of Zellwerk GmbH

Characterization of porous medium (SiC foam)

In situ draining experiments were carried out in order to understand the nature of the residual static liquid holdup in SiC foams. The goal of these experiments is to enable better future modeling and design of structured reactors that are based on SiC foams.

Read the article co-written with university of Manchester, SICAT

SiC foam

Multi-length scale characterization and simulation in tubular SOFC anodes

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are one of the most promising electrochemical devices for the efficient co-generation of heat and electricity of fuel gases. Advantages of this type of fuel cell include fuel flexibility, low emissions, and stability. The electrochemical performance is closely related to the microstructure of the electrodes, where the chemical reaction and mass transport take place.

This video demonstrates the concept of multi-length scale imaging and simulation of a novel-structured tubular SOFC anode to obtain effective mass transport. Microstructure parameters such as tortuosity and permeability are measured from the porous phase of the electrode extraction and are then used for the material definition of the solid region in the full-thickness anode simulation. Thus, the characteristic tortuosity, permeability, and effective transport parameter can be estimated and further used in the electrochemical performance simulation.

Courtesy of Dr. Xuekun Lu, University College London

Bubble analysis in food

Bubbles in food create an aerated structure that enhances the product appearance and properties (smoothness, creaminess, crispness, etc.). Avizo Software provides efficient methods of segmenting the bubbles and quantifying both their attributes and size distribution.

Avizo Software's Pore Network Modeling allows the creation of an equivalent network model of the porous distribution for advanced analysis of the bubbles' interconnections and properties.

Learn more

Ice cream matric - bubble analysis
The powerful Avizo Software porosity analysis toolset exposes the porous network and matrix of ice cream.
Courtesy of Irstea

Nanoporous gold

Nanoporous gold is a high-interest material in the field of catalytic and sensor applications. It can be imagined as a porous metal sponge with pore sizes in the range of a few tens of a nanometer (one thousand times smaller than the diameter of a human hair).

Image stack acquired with Helios 600 FIBSEM, Slice&View G2 and visualized with Avizo Software - all by Dr. K. Thiel, Fraunhofer IFAM.

Sample courtesy of K.R. Mangipudi, Institute for Materials Physics, University of Goettingen. Voxel size: 10x13x10nm, whole analysed volume size: ca. 6x2x1.3 µm.

Nanoporous gold

 

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Services

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Introductory training

Shorten your learning curve and maximize your investment with this introductory training specifically designed for new users of Amira, Avizo and PerGeos Software.

The course consists of a lecture with hands-on sessions. The training material highlights the basic features and functionalities of Amira, Avizo and PerGeos Software.

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Advanced training

Maximize your investment and reduce your time-to-results with this advanced training specifically designed for existing users of Amira, Avizo and PerGeos Software.

The course consists of a lecture with hands-on sessions. The training material highlights advanced features and functionalities of Amira, Avizo and PerGeos Software.

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Custom development

With over 25 years of experience in 3D and image processing and hundreds of custom projects delivered to organizations small and large, Thermo Fisher Scientific can provide you with a solution tailored to fit your specific needs.

We can customize and expand our software solutions at various levels.

 

Avizo Software is the solution of choice for pore analysis

Avizo Software provides dedicated tools for porosity analysis

  • Segmentation techniques for detecting porosity (including detection through artifacts such as FIB-SEM pore back)
  • Classification and volume fraction evaluation of porosity type (e.g., connected vs isolated)
  • Advanced quantification of individualized pores: size, shape factor, orientation, etc.
  • XPoreNetworkModeling extension, which includes identification of pore throats and separation along them. This extension enables the conversion of the pore space into a model (Pore Network Model) representing pores and their connectivity, on which various properties can be color mapped. It also provides advanced pore space statistics (pore size distribution, pore throat size distribution, channel length, etc.) and filtering of the model based on property
  • Matrix thickness map
  • Largest sphere fitting through a given pore
  • Pore ellipsoid fitting
  • Porosity profile along any given axis
  • Absolute permeability calculation with the XLab extension

Resources

Avizo for Porosity Analysis Overview

Multi-length scale characterisation and simulation in tubular SOFC anodes. This video demonstrates the concept of multi-length scale imaging and simulation of a novel-structured tubular SOFC anode to obtain effective mass transport. Courtesy of Dr. Xuekun Lu, University College London.

Metallic sample imaged by micro-CT, a digital structure analysis performed with Avizo, to measure influence of volume percentage and particle size on foam's density and cell size. Courtesy of Dr. M. Saadatfar from the Australian National University.

Avizo Software is used to analyze the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell’s structure and characterize the tortuosity thanks to the use of Pore Network Modeling. Courtesy of Jochen Joos, Institut für Angewandte Materialien.

Avizo for Porosity Analysis Overview

Multi-length scale characterisation and simulation in tubular SOFC anodes. This video demonstrates the concept of multi-length scale imaging and simulation of a novel-structured tubular SOFC anode to obtain effective mass transport. Courtesy of Dr. Xuekun Lu, University College London.

Metallic sample imaged by micro-CT, a digital structure analysis performed with Avizo, to measure influence of volume percentage and particle size on foam's density and cell size. Courtesy of Dr. M. Saadatfar from the Australian National University.

Avizo Software is used to analyze the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell’s structure and characterize the tortuosity thanks to the use of Pore Network Modeling. Courtesy of Jochen Joos, Institut für Angewandte Materialien.

Features

Import and process your imaging data

    • Handle any modality, at any scale, of any size:

    - X-ray tomography: CT, micro-/nanoCT
    - Electron microscopy
    - Synchrotron

    • Support for multi-data/multi-view, multi-channel, time series, very large data
    • Scaling, calibration, conversion, re-sampling
    • Image enhancement, comprehensive filtering and convolution, Fourier frequency transforms
    • Artifact reduction algorithms
    • Advanced multi-mode 2D/3D automatic registration
    • Image stack alignment, arithmetic, correlation, fusion

    Easily segment your imaging data

    • Thresholding and auto-segmentation, object separation, automatic labeling
    • Region growing, snakes, interpolation, wrapping, smoothing
    • Morphological processing, including watershed and basins
    • Machine Learning-based segmentation
    • Automatic tracing of individual fibers and filaments
    • Skeletonization and filament network extraction
    • 3D surface reconstruction
    • Grid generation for FEA/CFD

    Image-to-simulation workflows

    • 3D image-based meshing for Finite Element and CFD
    • Porosity/pore connectivity analysis and skeletonization for Pore Network Modeling
    • Direct 3D image-based simulation: absolute permeability, molecular diffusivity, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity computation

    Export your analysis and visualization work to seamlessly publish and present it

    • Animation and video generation
    • Advanced key frame and object animation
    • Mix images, geometric models, measurements and simulations
    • Annotations, measures legends, histograms and curve plots
    • Export spreadsheets, 3D models, high-quality images

    Visualize and explore your imaging data

    • Interactive high-quality volume
    • Orthogonal, oblique, cylindrical and curved slicing
    • Contouring and iso-surface extraction
    • Maximum Intensity or other types of projections
    • Vector and tensor visualization

    Analyze your imaging data and obtain quantitative information

    • Intuitive recipe creation, customization, automated replay
    • Built-in measurements, including counts, volumes, areas, perimeters, aspect ratios and orientations
    • User-defined measures
    • Results viewer with spreadsheet tool and charting
    • Automatic individual feature measurements, 3D localization and spreadsheet selection
    • Automated statistics, distribution graphs
    • Feature filtering using any measurement criterion
    • Data registration, deformation, comparison and measurements
    • Porosity detection and measurement
    • Fiber analysis
    • Pre-processing for structural and flow simulations
    • Import of CAD models for actual/nominal comparison

    Easily and quickly adapt Avizo Software to your specific needs

    • Custom C++ modules development
    • MATLAB™ bridge
    • Python scripting API


    Contact us

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