As the demand for high-performance materials increases, so does the importance of surface engineering. The material’s surface is the point of interaction with the external environment and other materials; therefore, many modern material challenges can be solved only by understanding the physical and chemical interactions that occur at the surface or at the interfaces of a material’s layers.
Surface modification can be used to alter or improve these characteristics, and so surface analysis is used to understand surface chemistry of a material and investigate the efficacy of surface engineering. From non-stick cookware coatings to thin-film electronics and bio-active surfaces, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is one of the standard tools for surface characterization.
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