European Water Framework Directive
Presenting a complete solution for challenges in environmental analysis
The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) was introduced in August 2013 amending the EU directives 2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC. The EU WFD:
- Commits all member states to actively control and monitor all the water bodies in the various member states on a large list of environmental contaminants
- Lays down a strategy against the pollution of water to be applied to all European Union member states
- Involves the identification of priority substances and the monitoring of different classes of contaminants; and it includes the first watch list (used for future prioritization exercises)
We all know compliance standards and regulations will continue to evolve. As will environmental threats. Year-to-year, country-to-country. What if the equipment your lab arms itself with today would meet tomorrow’s demanding needs as well?
In this resource you can find a short description on the workflow, together with sample preparation advice and suggested instrumentation for the EU WFD.
This resource is a comprehensive description of sample preparations, analytical conditions, and results of the compounds contained in the EU WFD.
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CIP 2 UK regulations investigates the occurrence, sources, and removal of trace substances in wastewater treatment facility effluent. This regulation helps to establish priorities for remediative action to ensure surface waters meet new Environmental Quality Standards (EQS).
- The CIP 1 program was managed by UK Water Industry Research (UKWIR) and implemented from 2010–2013.
- The CIP 2 program is a follow up program of sampling and analysis to be implemented between 2014 and 2020.
The primary objective of CIP 2 is to identify and characterize sites where EQS levels are breached. In the program 70 priority substances were determined from 162 sewage treatment works (STW) effluents. 11 pharmaceuticals were also identified as priority monitoring candidates. It is important to note that EQS is defined for only 3 pharmaceutical compounds Diclofenac, E2, and EE2. All substances selected for monitoring analysis were detected previously in wastewater effluent samples. The determined environmental concentrations of many priority substances in effluent exceeded EQS.
The low detection levels for the elemental contaminants listed in the WFD necessitate use of ICP-MS technology. The samples that require testing have widely varying matrix concentrations and often contain suspended particles, which, for ICP-MS, can drive internal standard recoveries out of their acceptable ranges and cause sample introduction blockages and signal drift.