References - Isolation of E.coli O157 from Meat

S. Stampi, A. Caprioli, G. De Luca, P. Quaglio, R. Sacchetti, and F. Zanetti. Detection of Escherichia coli O157 in bovine meat products in northern Italy. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 90 (3):257-262, 2004.

P. A. Chapman and R. Ashton. An evaluation of rapid methods for detecting Escherichia coli O157 on beef carcasses. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 87:279-285, 2003.

C. Dontorou, C. Papadopoulou, G. Filioussis, V. Economou, I. Apostolou, G. Zakkas, A. Salamoura, A. Kansouzidou, and S. Levidiotou. Isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from foods in Greece. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 82 (3):273-279, 2003.

B. Sadowska, J. Osek, A. Bonar, M. Wieckowska-Szakiel, W. Rudnicka, and B. Rozalska. Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of typical and atypical Escherichia coli O157, clinical and food isolates. Acta Microbiol Pol 52 (2):149-158, 2003.

G. A. Barkocy-Gallagher, E. D. Berry, M Rivera-Betancourt, T. M. Arthur, X Nou, and M Koohmaraie. Development of Methods for the recovery of Escherichia coil O157:H7 and Salmonella from beef carcass sponge samples and bovine fecal and hide samples. J.Food Protect. 65 (10):1527-1534, 2002.

A. Lekowska-Kochaniak, D. Czajkowska, and J. Popowski. Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw meat by immunomagnetic separation and multiplex PCR. Acta Microbiol Pol 51 (4):327-337, 2002.

P. A. Chapman, A. T. Cerdan Malo, M. Ellin, R. Ashton, and M. A. Harkin. Escherichia coli O157 in cattle and sheep at slaughter, on beef and lamb carcasses and in raw beef and lamb products in South Yorkshire, UK. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 64 (1-2):139-150, 2001.

P. A. Chapman, M. Ellin, R. Ashton, and W. Shafique. Comparison of culture, PCR and immunoassays for detecting Escherichia coli O157 following enrichment culture and immunomagnetic separation performed on naturally contaminated raw meat products. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 68 (1-2):11-20, 2001.

I. Chinen, J. D. Tanaro, E. Miliwebsky, L. H. Lound, G. Chillemi, S. Ledri, A. Baschkier, M. Scarpin, E. Manfredi, and M. Rivas. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from retail meats in Argentina. J.Food Protect. 64 (9):1346-1351, 2001.

J. E. Coia, Y. Johnston, N. J. Steers, and M. F. Hanson. A survey of the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in raw meats, raw cow's milk and raw-milk cheeses in south-east Scotland. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 66 (1-2):63-69, 2001.

K. Grif, M. P. Dierich, and F. Allerberger. Dynabeads plus 3M Petrifilm HEC versus Vitek Immunodiagnostic assay system for detection of E. coli O157 in minced meat. Letters in Applied Microbiology 26:199-204, 1997.

S. Heckotter, M. Bulte, and E. Lucker. Detection of Escherichia coli serogroup O157 in foods by immunomagnetic separation (IMS). Archiv für Lebensmittelhygiene 48 (4):85-87, 1997.

R. Lindqvist. Preparation of PCR samples from food by a rapid and simple centrifugation technique evaluated by detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 37:73-82, 1997.

L. Restaino, H. J. Castillo, D. Stewart, and M. L. Tortorello. Antibody-Direct Epifluorescent Filter Technique and Immunomagnetic Separation for 10-h Screening and 24-h Confirmation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Beef. J.Food Protect. 59 (10):1072-1075, 1997.

C. Vernozy-Rozand. Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other verocytotoxin-producing E. Coli (VTEC) in food. J.Appl.Microbiol. 82:537-551, 1997.

J. E. Blanco, M. Blanco, A. Mora, C. Prado, M. Rio, L. Fernandez, M. J. Fernandez, V. Sainz, and J. Blanco. Detection of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in minced beef using immunomagnetic separation. Microbiologia 12:385-394, 1996.

F. J. Bolton, L. Crozier, and J. K. Williamson. Isolation of Escherichia coli O157 from raw meat products. The Society for Applied Bacteriology 23:317-321, 1996.

References - Isolation of E.coli O157 & other EPEC/VTECs


N. Fegan, G. Higgs, P. Vanderlinde, and P. Desmarchelier. Enumeration of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle faeces using most probable number technique and automated immunomagnetic separation. Letters in Applied Microbiology 38 (1):56-59, 2004.

D. R. Shelton, J. A. Higgins, J. A. Van Kessel, Y. A. Pachepsky, K. T. Belt, and J. S. Karns. Estimation of viable Escherichia coli O157 in surface waters using enrichment in conjunction with immunological detection. J.Microbiol.Methods 58 (2):223-231, 2004.

S. Stampi, A. Caprioli, G. De Luca, P. Quaglio, R. Sacchetti, and F. Zanetti. Detection of Escherichia coli O157 in bovine meat products in northern Italy. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 90 (3):257-262, 2004.

H. E. Ternent, G. Innocent, L. M. Filshie, D. J. Taylor, W. B. Steele, S. A. McEwen, W. J. Reilly, G. J. Gunn, S. W. Reid, and D. Mellor. Frozen storage of Escherichia coli O157 in buffered peptone water and its detection on bovine carcasses. J.Food Protect. 67 (1):40-45, 2004.

S. M. Younts-Dahl, M. L. Galyean, G. H. Loneragan, N. A. Elam, and M. M. Brashears. Dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus- and Propionibacterium-based direct-fed microbials and prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in beef feedlot cattle and on hides at harvest. J.Food Protect. 67 (5):889-893, 2004.

P. A. Chapman and R. Ashton. An evaluation of rapid methods for detecting Escherichia coli O157 on beef carcasses. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 87:279-285, 2003.

C. C. Dodd, M. W. Sanderson, J. M. Sargeant, T. G. Nagaraja, R. D. Oberst, R. A. Smith, and D. D. Griffin. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle feeds in Midwestern feedlots. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 69 (6):5243-5247, 2003.

C. Dontorou, C. Papadopoulou, G. Filioussis, V. Economou, I. Apostolou, G. Zakkas, A. Salamoura, A. Kansouzidou, and S. Levidiotou. Isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from foods in Greece. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 82 (3):273-279, 2003.

G. Foster, G. F. Hopkins, G. J. Gunn, H. Ternent, F. M. Thomson-Carter, H. I. Knight, D. J. Graham, V. Edge, and B. A. Synge. A comparison of two pre-enrichment media prior to immunomagnetic separation for the isolation of E. coli O157 from bovine faeces. J.Appl.Microbiol. 95 (1):155-159, 2003.

L. J. Grauke, S. A. Wynia, H. Q. Sheng, J. W. Yoon, C. J. Williams, C. W. Hunt, and C. J. Hovde. Acid resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from the gastrointestinal tract of cattle fed hay or grain. Veterinary Microbiology 95 (3):211-225, 2003.

R. A. Laven, A. Ashmore, and C. S. Stewart. Escherichia coli in the rumen and colon of slaughter cattle, with particular reference to E. coli O157. Vet J 165 (1):78-83, 2003.

W. Li and M. A. Drake. Detection of viable Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction. J.Food Protect. 66 (7):1277-1282, 2003.

B. Sadowska, J. Osek, A. Bonar, M. Wieckowska-Szakiel, W. Rudnicka, and B. Rozalska. Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of typical and atypical Escherichia coli O157, clinical and food isolates. Acta Microbiol Pol 52 (2):149-158, 2003.

D. R. Shelton, J. A. Van Kessel, M. R. Wachtel, K. T. Belt, and J. S. Karns. Evaluation of parameters affecting quantitative detection of Escherichia coli O157 in enriched water samples using immunomagnetic electrochemiluminescence. J.Microbiol.Methods 55:717-725, 2003.

B. A. Synge, M. E. Chase-Topping, G. F. Hopkins, I. J. McKendrick, F. M. Thomson-Carter, D. Gray, S. M. Rusbridge, F. I. Munro, G. Foster, and G. J. Gunn. Factors influencing the shedding of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 by beef suckler cows. Epidemiol.Infect. 130 (2):301-312, 2003.

A. V. Tutenel, D. Pierard, D. Vandekerchove, J. Van Hoof, and L. De Zutter. Sensitivity of methods for the isolation of Escherichia coli O157 from naturally infected bovine faeces. Veterinary Microbiology 94:341-346, 2003.

A. V. Tutenel, D. Pierard, J. Van Hoof, and L. De Zutter. Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli O157 contamination routes in a cattle slaughterhouse. J.Food Protect. 66 (9):1564-1569, 2003.

F. Zanetti, G. De Luca, S. Morabito, R. Sacchetti, and S. Stampi. Immunomagnetic assay, classic culture method and fermentation tube test in the recovery of Escherichia coli O157 from sewage. New Microbiol 26:207-213, 2003.

S. M. Avery, A. Small, C. A. Reid, and S. Buncic. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 from hides of cattle at slaughter. J.Food Protect. 65 (7):1172-1176, 2002.

G. A. Barkocy-Gallagher, E. D. Berry, M Rivera-Betancourt, T. M. Arthur, X Nou, and M Koohmaraie. Development of Methods for the recovery of Escherichia coil O157:H7 and Salmonella from beef carcass sponge samples and bovine fecal and hide samples. J.Food Protect. 65 (10):1527-1534, 2002.

N. F. Hepburn, M. MacRae, M. Johnston, J. Mooney, and I. D. Ogden. Optimizing enrichment conditions for the isolation of Escherichia coli O157 in soils by immunomagnetic separation. Letters in Applied Microbiology 34 (5):365-369, 2002.

A. Lekowska-Kochaniak, D. Czajkowska, and J. Popowski. Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw meat by immunomagnetic separation and multiplex PCR. Acta Microbiol Pol 51 (4):327-337, 2002.

E. M. Nielsen, C. Tegtmeier, H. J. Andersen, C. Gronbaek, and J. S. Andersen. Influence of age, sex and herd characteristics on the occurrence of Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in Danish dairy farms. Veterinary Microbiology 88 (3):245-257, 2002.

I. D. Ogden, N. F. Hepburn, M. MacRae, N. J. C. Strachan, D. R. Fenlon, S. M. Rusbridge, and T. H. Pennington. Long-term survival of Escherichia coli O157 on pasture following an outbreak associated with sheep at a scout camp. Letters in Applied Microbiology 34 (2):100-104, 2002.

R. D. Reinders, A. Barna, L. J. Lipman, and P. G. Bijker. Comparison of the sensitivity of manual and automated immunomagnetic separation methods for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk. J.Appl.Microbiol. 92 (6):1015-1020, 2002.

A. V. Tutenel, D. Pierard, J. Uradzinski, E. Jozwik, M. Pastuszczak, J. Van Hende, M. Uyttendaele, J. Debevere, T. Cheasty, J. Van Hoof, and L. De Zutter. Isolation and characterization of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:1H7 from cattle in Belgium and Poland. Epidemiol.Infect. 129 (1):41-47, 2002.

E. Voitoux, V. Lafarge, C. Collette, and B. Lombard. Applicability of the draft standard method for the detection of Escherichia coli O157 in dairy products. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 77:213-221, 2002.

A. Yilmaz, H. Gun, and H. Yilmaz. Frequency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Turkish cattle.

S. Bonardi, E. Maggi, G. Pizzin, S. Morabito, and A. Caprioli. Faecal carriage of Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and carcass contamination in cattle at slaughter in northern Italy. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 66 (1-2):47-53, 2001.

P. A. Chapman, M. Ellin, R. Ashton, and W. Shafique. Comparison of culture, PCR and immunoassays for detecting Escherichia coli O157 following enrichment culture and immunomagnetic separation performed on naturally contaminated raw meat products. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 68 (1-2):11-20, 2001.

P. A. Chapman, A. T. Cerdan Malo, M. Ellin, R. Ashton, and M. A. Harkin. Escherichia coli O157 in cattle and sheep at slaughter, on beef and lamb carcasses and in raw beef and lamb products in South Yorkshire, UK. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 64 (1-2):139-150, 2001.

I. Chinen, J. D. Tanaro, E. Miliwebsky, L. H. Lound, G. Chillemi, S. Ledri, A. Baschkier, M. Scarpin, E. Manfredi, and M. Rivas. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from retail meats in Argentina. J.Food Protect. 64 (9):1346-1351, 2001.

J. E. Coia, Y. Johnston, N. J. Steers, and M. F. Hanson. A survey of the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in raw meats, raw cow's milk and raw-milk cheeses in south-east Scotland. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 66 (1-2):63-69, 2001.

G. Conedera, P. A. Chapman, S. Marangon, E. Tisato, P. Dalvit, and A. Zuin. A field survey of Escherichia coli O157 ecology on a cattle farm in Italy. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 66:85-93, 2001.

G. Johnsen, Y. Wasteson, E. Heir, O. I. Berget, and H. Herikstad. Escherichia coli O157:H7 in faeces from cattle, sheep and pigs in the southwest part of Norway during 1998 and 1999. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 65:193-200, 2001.

M. E. Jonsson, A. Aspan, E. Eriksson, and I. Vagsholm. Persistence of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in calves kept on pasture and in calves kept indoors during the summer months in a Swedish dairy herd. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 66 (1-2):55-61, 2001.

D. H. Kang, G. A. Barkocy-Gallagher, M Koohmaraie, and G. R. Siragusa. Screening bovine carcass sponge samples for Escherichia coli O157 using a short enrichment coupled with immunomagnetic separation and a polymerase chain reaction-based (BAX) detection stept. J.Food Protect. 64 (10):1610-1612, 2001.

P. Kerr, D. Finlay, F. M. Thomson-Carter, and H. J. Ball. A comparison of a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and immunomagnetic bead selective enrichment for the detection of Escherichia coli O157 from bovine faeces. J.Appl.Microbiol. 91 (5):933-936, 2001.

E. Lahti, M. Keskimaki, L. Rantala, P. Hyvonen, A. Siitonen, and T. Honkanen-Buzalski. Occurrence of Escherichia coli O157 in Finnish cattle. Veterinary Microbiology 79 ( 3):239-251, 2001.

J. T. Lejeune, T. E. Besser, D. H. Rice, and D. D. Hancock. Methods for the isolation of water-borne Escherichia coli O157. Letters in Applied Microbiology 32 (5):316-320, 2001.

K. Licence, K. R. Oates, B. A. Synge, and T. M. S. Reid. An outbreak of E. coli O157 infection with evidence of spread from animals to man through contamination of a private water supply. Epidemiol.Infect. 126:135-138, 2001.

S. Meyer-Broseta, S. N. Bastian, P. D. Arne, O. Cerf, and M. Sanaa. Review of epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of contamination of healthy cattle with Escherichia coli serogroup O157:H7. Int.J.Hyg.Environ.Health 230:347-361, 2001.

I. D. Ogden, N. F. Hepburn, and M. MacRae. The optimization of isolation media used in immunomagnetic separation methods for the detection of Escherichia coli O157 in foods. J.Appl.Microbiol. 91 (2):373-379, 2001.

M. Safariková and I. Safarik. Immunomagnetic separation of Escherichia coli O26, O111 and O157 from vegetables. Letters in Applied Microbiology 33:36-39, 2001.

D. R. Shelton and J. S. Karns. Quantitative detection of Escherichia coli O157 in surface waters by using immunomagnetic electrochemiluminescence. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 67 (7):2908-2915, 2001.

D. Stewart, K. F. Reineke, J. Ulaszek, T. Fu, and M. L. Tortorello. Growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during sprouting of alfalfa seeds. Letters in Applied Microbiology 33 (1):95-99, 2001.

S. I. Tu, D. Patterson, C. Briggs, P. Irwin, and L. Yu. Detection of immunomagnetically captured Escherichia coli O157:H7 by antibody-conjugated alkaline phosphatase. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 26 (6):345-349, 2001.

L. Vold, M. Sandberg, J. Jarp, and Y. Wasteson. Occurrence and characterization of Escherichia coli O157 isolated from cattle in Norway. Vet Res Commun. 25 (1):13-26, 2001.

F. M. Wu, L. R. Beuchat, J. G. Wells, L. Slutsker, M. P. Doyle, and B. Swaminathan. Factors influencing the detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 71 (1):93-99, 2001.

M. Bielaszewska, H. Schmidt, A. Liesegang, R. Prager, W. Rabsch, H. Tschape, A. Cizek, J. Janda, K. Blahova, and H. Karch. Cattle can be a reservoir of sorbitol-fermenting shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H(-) strains and a source of human diseases. J.Clin.Microbiol. 38:3470-3473, 2000.

P. A. Chapman, C. A. Siddons, A. T. Cerdan Malo, and M. A. Harkin. A one year study of Escherichia coli O157 in raw beef and lamb products. Epidemiol.Infect. 124 :207-213, 2000.

P. A. Chapman, J. Cornell, and C. Green. Infection with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 during a visit to an inner city open farm. Epidemiol.Infect. 125:531-536, 2000.

I. D. Ogden, M. MacRae, N. F. Hepburn, and N. J. C. Strachan. Improved isolation of Escherichia coli O157 using large enrichment volumes for immunomagnetic separation. Letters in Applied Microbiology 31:338-341, 2000.

C. A. Power, R. P. Johnson, S. A. McEwen, W. B. McNab, M. W. Griffiths, W. R. Usborne, and S. A. De Grandis. Evaluation of the Reveal and SafePath rapid Escherichia coli O157 detection tests for use on bovine feces and carcasses. J.Food Protect. 63:860-866, 2000.

W. L. Tsai, C. E. Miller, and E. R. Richter. Determination of the sensitivity of a rapid Escherichia coli O157:H7 assay for testing 375-gram composite samples. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 66:4149-4151, 2000.

V. Vuddhakul, N. Patararungrong, P. Pungrasamee, S. Jitsurong, T. Morigaki, N. Asai, and M. Nishibuchi. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157 from retail beef and bovine feces in Thailand. FEMS 182:343-347, 2000.

References - Isolation of Giardia

B. C. Ferrari and D. A. Veal. Analysis-only detection of Giardia by combining immunomagnetic separation and two-color flow cytometry. Cytometry 51A:79-86, 2003.

J. A. Higgins, J. M. Trout, R. Fayer, D. R. Shelton, and M. C. Jenkins. Recovery and detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from water samples using continuous flow centrifugation. Water Res. 37 (15):3551-3560, 2003.

M. Lepesteur, S. Blasdall, and N. J. Ashbolt. Particle dispersion for further Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection by flow cytometry. Letters in Applied Microbiology 37 (3):218-229, 2003.

J. Massanet-Nicolau. New method using sedimentation and immunomagnetic separation for isolation and enumeration of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 69 (11):6758-6761, 2003.

W. Quintero-Betancourt, A. L Gennaccaro, T. M Scott, and J. B Rose. Assessment of Methods for Detection of Infectious Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts in Reclaimed Effluents. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 69 (9):5380-5388, 2003.

D. S. Souza, J. T. Barreiros, K. M. Papp, M. Steindel, C. M. Simoes, and C. R. Barardi. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 45 (6):339-342, 2003.

M. R. de Roubin, J. S. Pharamond, F. Zanelli, F. Poty, S. Houdart, F. Laurent, J. L. Drocourt, and S. Van Poucke. Application of laser scanning cytometry followed by epifluorescent and differential interference contrast microscopy for the detection and enumeration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in raw and potable waters. J.Appl.Microbiol. 93 (4):599-607, 2002.

W. Quintero-Betancourt, E. R Peele, and J. B Rose. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis: a review of laboratory methods for detection of these waterborne parasites. J.Microbiol.Methods 49:209-224, 2002.

R. Rimhanen-Finne, A. Horman, P. Ronkainen, and M-L. Hanninen. An IC-PCR method for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in natural surface waters in Finland. J.Microbiol.Methods 50:299-303, 2002.

B. M. Hsu, C. Huang, Y. C. Lai, H. S. Tai, and Y. C. Chung. Evaluation of immunomagnetic separation method for detection of Giardia for different reaction times and reaction volumes. Parasitol Res. 87 (6):472-474, 2001.

R. M. McCuin, Z Bukhari, J. Sobrinho, and J. L Clancy. Recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from source water concentrates using immunomagnetic separation. J.Microbiol.Methods 45:69-76, 2001.

S. P. Myoda and C. P. Huang. A microscope system with a dual-band filter for the simultaneous enumeration of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and sporozoites. Water Res. 35 ( 17):4231-4236, 2001.

R. Rimhanen-Finne, P. Ronkainen, and M-L. Hanninen. Simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia in sewage sludge by IC-PCR. J.Appl.Microbiol. 91 (6):1030-1035, 2001.

References - Isolation of Listeria


L. Bauwens, F. Vercammen, and A. Hertsens. Detection of pathogenic Listeria spp. in zoo animal faeces: use of immunomagnetic separation and a chromogenic isolation medium. Veterinary Microbiology 91:115-123, 2003.

N. Garrec, F. Dilasser, A. M. Pourcher, S. Perelle, and P. Fach. Comparison of a cultural method with ListerScreen plus Rapid'L.mono or PCR-ELISA methods for the enumeration of L. monocytogenes in naturally contaminated sewage sludge. J.Microbiol.Methods 55 (3):763-773, 2003.

Y. S. Jung, J. F. Frank, and R. E. Brackett. Evaluation of antibodies for immunomagnetic separation combined with flow cytometry detection of Listeria monocytogenes. J.Food Protect. 66:1283-1287, 2003.

D. Volokhov, A. Rasooly, K. Chumakov, and V. Chizhikov. Identification of Listeria species by microarray-based assay. J.Clin.Microbiol. 40 (12):4720-4728, 2002.

M. Wieckowska-Szakiel, A. Bubert, M. Rozalski, U. Krajewska, W. Rudnicka, and B. Rozalska. Colony-blot assay with anti-p60 antibodies as a method for quick identification of Listeria in food. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 72 (1-2):63-71, 2002.

K. Grif, I. Hein, M. Wagner, E. Brandl, O. Mpamugo, J. McLauchlin, M. P. Dierich, and F. Allerberger. Prevalence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes in the feces of healthy Austrians. Wien Klin Wochenschr 113 (19):737-742, 2001.

H. Y. Hsih and H. Y. Tsen. Combination of immunomagnetic separation and polymerase chain reaction for the simultaneous detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in food samples. J.Food Protect. 64 (11):1744-1750, 2001.

J. A. Hudson, R. J. Lake, M. G. Savill, P. Scholes, and R. E. McCormick. Rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes in ham samples using immunomagnetic separation followed by polymerase chain reaction. J.Appl.Microbiol. 90:614-621, 2001.

X. Li, N. Boudjellab, and X. Zhao. Combined PCR and slot blot assay for detection of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 56:167-177, 2000.

L. O'Connor, J. Joy, M. Kane, T. Smith, and M. Maher. Rapid polymerase chain reaction/DNA probe membrane-based assay for the detection of Listeria and Listeria monocytogenes in food. J.Food Protect. 63:337-342, 2000.

References - Isolation of Salmonella spp.

M. J. Lynch, C. G. Leon-Velarde, S. McEwen, and J. A. Odumeru. Evaluation of an automated immunomagnetic separation method for the rapid detection of Salmonella species in poultry environmental samples. J.Microbiol.Methods 58 (2):285-288, 2004.

P. Duncanson, D. R. Wareing, and O. Jones. Application of an automated immunomagnetic separation-enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Salmonella spp during an outbreak associated with a retail premises. Letters in Applied Microbiology 37 (2):144-148, 2003.

S. J. Favrin, S. A. Jassim, and M. W. Griffiths. Application of a novel immunomagnetic separation-bacteriophage assay for the detection of Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in food. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 85:63-71, 2003.

C. H. Liao and L. M. Shollenberger. Detection of Salmonella by indicator agar media and PCR as affected by alfalfa seed homogenates and native bacteria. Letters in Applied Microbiology 36 (3):152-156, 2003.

Y. Liu, J. Ye, and Y. Li. Rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated in ground beef, chicken carcass, and lettuce samples with an immunomagnetic chemiluminescence fiber-optic biosensor. J.Food Protect. 66:512-517, 2003.

C. M. Logue, J. S. Sherwood, P. A. Olah, L. M. Elijah, and M. R. Dockter. The incidence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp on freshly processed poultry from US Midwestern processing plants. J.Appl.Microbiol. 94 (1):16-24, 2003.

J. M. McEvoy, A. M. Doherty, J. J. Sheridan, I. S. Blair, and D. A. McDowell. The prevalence of Salmonella spp. in bovine faecal, rumen and carcass samples at a commercial abattoir. J.Appl.Microbiol. 94:693-700, 2003.

G. A. Barkocy-Gallagher, E. D. Berry, M Rivera-Betancourt, T. M. Arthur, X Nou, and M Koohmaraie. Development of Methods for the recovery of Escherichia coil O157:H7 and Salmonella from beef carcass sponge samples and bovine fecal and hide samples. J.Food Protect. 65 (10):1527-1534, 2002.

T. V. Suslow, J. Wu, W. F. Fett, and L. J. Harris. Detection and elimination of Salmonella mbandaka from naturally contaminated alfalfa seed by treatment with heat or calcium hypochlorite. J.Food Protect. 65 (3):452-458, 2002.

S. J. Favrin, S. A. Jassim, and M. W. Griffiths. Development and optimization of a novel immunomagnetic separation- bacteriophage assay for detection of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis in broth. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 77 (3-4):369-378, 2001.

Y. Hara-Kudo, S. Kumagai, T. Masuda, K. Goto, K. Ohtsuka, H. Masaki, H. Tanaka, K. Tanno, M. Miyahara, and H. Konuma. Detection of Salmonella enteritidis in shell and liquid eggs using enrichment and plating. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 64 (3):395-399, 2001.

H. Y. Hsih and H. Y. Tsen. Combination of immunomagnetic separation and polymerase chain reaction for the simultaneous detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in food samples. J.Food Protect. 64 (11):1744-1750, 2001.

W. Sun, L. Y. Brovko, and M. Griffiths. Use of bioluminescent Salmonella for assessing the efficiency of constructed phage-based biosorbent. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 27 (2):126-128, 2001.

Y. Che, X. Li, M. Slavik, and D. Paul. Rapid detection of Salmonella typhimurium in chicken carcass wash water using an immunoelectrochemical method. J.Food Protect. 63:1043-1048, 2000.

G. Jenikova, J. Pazlarova, and K. Demnerova. Detection of Salmonella in food samples by the combination of immunomagnetic separation and PCR assay. Int Microbiol. 3:225-229, 2000.

X. Li, N. Boudjellab, and X. Zhao. Combined PCR and slot blot assay for detection of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 56:167-177, 2000.

L. P. Mansfield and S. Forsythe. The detection of Salmonella using a combined immunomagnetic separation and ELISA end-detection procedure. Letters in Applied Microbiology 31:279-283, 2000.

A. Spanova, B. Rittich, R. Karpiskova, L. Cechova, and D. Skapova. PCR identification of Salmonella cells in food and stool samples after immunomagnetic separation. Bioseperation 9 (6):379-384, 2000.

H. Peng and L. A. Shelef. Automated rapid screening of foods for the presence of salmonellae. J.Food Protect. 62 (11):1341-1345, 1999.

N. Rijpens, L. Herman, F. Vereecken, G. Jannes, J. De Smedt, and L. De Zutter. Rapid detection of stressed Salmonella spp. in dairy and egg products using immunomagnetic separation and PCR. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 46:37-44, 1999.

G. Ripabelli, M. L. Sammarco, and G. M. Grasso. Evaluation of immunomagnetic separation and plating media for recovery of Salmonella from meat. J.Food Protect. 62:198-201, 1999.

C. Soumet, G. Ermel, N. Rose, V. Rose, P. Drouin, G. Salvat, and P. Colin. Evaluation of a multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous identification of Salmonella sp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from environmental swabs of poultry houses. Letters in Applied Microbiology 28:113-117, 1999.

W. Tan and L. A. Shelef. Automated detection of Salmonella spp. in foods. J.Microbiol.Methods 37:87-91, 1999.

X. Wang and M. Slavik. Rapid detection of Salmonella in chicken washes by immunomagnetic separation and flow cytometry. J.Food Protect. 62:717-723, 1999.

References - Salmonella and Eggs

P. Duncanson, D. R. Wareing, and O. Jones. Application of an automated immunomagnetic separation-enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Salmonella spp during an outbreak associated with a retail premises. Letters in Applied Microbiology 37 (2):144-148, 2003.

Y. Hara-Kudo, S. Kumagai, T. Masuda, K. Goto, K. Ohtsuka, H. Masaki, H. Tanaka, K. Tanno, M. Miyahara, and H. Konuma. Detection of Salmonella enteritidis in shell and liquid eggs using enrichment and plating. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 64 (3):395-399, 2001.

A. Spanova, B. Rittich, R. Karpiskova, L. Cechova, and D. Skapova. PCR identification of Salmonella cells in food and stool samples after immunomagnetic separation. Bioseperation 9 (6):379-384, 2000.

H. Peng and L. A. Shelef. Automated rapid screening of foods for the presence of salmonellae. J.Food Protect. 62 (11):1341-1345, 1999.

N. Rijpens, L. Herman, F. Vereecken, G. Jannes, J. De Smedt, and L. De Zutter. Rapid detection of stressed Salmonella spp. in dairy and egg products using immunomagnetic separation and PCR. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 46:37-44, 1999.

W. Tan and L. A. Shelef. Automated detection of Salmonella spp. in foods. J.Microbiol.Methods 37:87-91, 1999.

S. J. Shaw, B. W. Blais, and D. C. Nundy. Performance of the Dynabeads anti-Salmonella system in the detection of Salmonella species in foods, animal feeds, and environmental samples. J.Food Protect. 61 (11):1507-1510, 1998.

K. S. Cudjoe, R. Krona, B. Gr¢n, and E. Olsen. Use of ferrous sulphate and immunomagnetic separation to recover Salmonella enteritidis from raw eggs. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 23(2):149-158, 1994.

References - Isolation of Cryptosporidium

E.R. Atwill, R. Phillips, M. das Gracas Cabral Pereira, X. Li, and B. McCowan. Seasonal Shedding of Multiple Cryptosporidium Genotypes in California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi). Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 70 (11):6748-6752, 2004.

E. R Atwill, D. Hoar, M. das Gracas Cabral Pereira, K. W. Tate, F. Rulofson, and G. Nader. Improved quantitative estimates of low environmental loading and sporadic periparturient shedding of Cryptosporidium parvum in adult beef cattle. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 69 (8):4604-4610, 2003.

E. R. Atwill and M. G. Pereira. Lack of detectable shedding of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by periparturient dairy cattle. J.Parasitol 89 (6):1234-1236, 2003.

C. M. Davies, C. Kaucner, D. Deere, and N. J. Ashbolt. Recovery and enumeration of Cryptosporidium parvum from animal fecal matrices. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 69 (5):2842-2847, 2003.

Y. Y. Feng, S. L. Ong, J. Y. Hu, L. F. Song, X. L. Tan, and W. J. Ng. Effect of particles on the recovery of cryptosporidium oocysts from source water samples of various turbidities. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 69:1898-1903, 2003.

M. Fontaine and E. Guillot. An immunomagnetic separation-real-time PCR method for quantification of Cryptosporidium parvum in water samples. J.Microbiol.Methods 54 (1):29-36, 2003.

S. Hallier-Soulier and E. Guillot. An immunomagnetic separation-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (IMS-RT-PCR) test for sensitive and rapid detection of viable waterborne Cryptosporidium parvum. Environ Microbiol 5:592-598, 2003.

J. A. Higgins, J. M. Trout, R. Fayer, D. R. Shelton, and M. C. Jenkins. Recovery and detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from water samples using continuous flow centrifugation. Water Res. 37 (15):3551-3560, 2003.

M. Inoue, S. K. Rai, T. Oda, K. Kimura, M. Nakanishi, H. Hotta, and S. Uga. A new filter-eluting solution that facilitates improved recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts from water. J.Microbiol.Methods 55 (3):679-686, 2003.

E. Kuczynska, D. G. Boyer, and D. R. Shelton. Comparison of immunofluorescence assay and immunomagnetic electrochemiluminescence in detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in karst water samples. J.Microbiol.Methods 53:17-26, 2003.

M. Lepesteur, S. Blasdall, and N. J. Ashbolt. Particle dispersion for further Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection by flow cytometry. Letters in Applied Microbiology 37 (3):218-229, 2003.

J. Massanet-Nicolau. New method using sedimentation and immunomagnetic separation for isolation and enumeration of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 69 (11):6758-6761, 2003.

M. L. Power, S. R. Shanker, N. C. Sangster, and D. A. Veal. Evaluation of a combined immunomagnetic separation/flow cytometry technique for epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium in domestic and Australian native animals. Vet Parasitol 112:21-31, 2003.

W. Quintero-Betancourt, A. L Gennaccaro, T. M Scott, and J. B Rose. Assessment of Methods for Detection of Infectious Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts in Reclaimed Effluents. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 69 (9):5380-5388, 2003.

M. W. Ware, L. Wymer, H. D. Lindquist, and F. W 3rd Schaefer. Evaluation of an alternative IMS dissociation procedure for use with Method 1622: detection of Cryptosporidium in water. J.Microbiol.Methods 55 (3):575-583, 2003.

A. Di Pinto and M. G. Tantillo. Direct detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by immunomagnetic seperation-polymerase chain reaction in raw milk. J.Food Protect. 65 (8):1345-1348, 2002.

R. C Kuhn, C. M Rock, and K. H Oshima. Effects of pH and magnetic material on immunomagnetic separation of Cryptosporidium oocysts from concentrated water samples. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 68 (4):2066-2070, 2002.

M. D. Pereira, E. R Atwill, A. P. Barbosa, S. A. Silva, and M. T. Garcia-Zapata. Intra-familial and extra-familial risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium parvum infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiania, Goias, Brazil. Am.J.Trop.Med.Hyg 66 (6):787-793, 2002.

W. Quintero-Betancourt, E. R Peele, and J. B Rose. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis: a review of laboratory methods for detection of these waterborne parasites. J.Microbiol.Methods 49:209-224, 2002.

R. Rimhanen-Finne, A. Horman, P. Ronkainen, and M-L. Hanninen. An IC-PCR method for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in natural surface waters in Finland. J.Microbiol.Methods 50:299-303, 2002.

G. D. Sturbaum, P. T. Klonicki, M. M. Marshall, B. H. Jost, B. L. Clay, and C. R. Sterling. Immunomagnetic separation (IMS)-fluorescent antibody detection and IMS-PCR detection of seeded Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in natural waters and their limitations. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 68 (6):2991-2996, 2002.

P. I. Ward, P. Deplazes, W. Regli, H. Rinder, and A. Mathis. Detection of eight Cryptosporidium genotypes in surface and waste waters in Europe. Parasitology 124 (4):359-368, 2002.

B. M. Hsu and C. Huang. Performances of the immunomagnetic separation method for Cryptosporidium in water under various operation conditions. Biotechnol Prog 17 (6):1114-1118, 2001.

Y. M. Lee, P. W. Johnson, J. L. Call, M. J. Arrowood, B. W. Furness, S. C. Pichette, K. K. Grady, P. Reeh, L. Mitchell, D. Bergmire-Sweat, W. R. Mackenzie, and V. C. Tsang. Development and application of a quantitative, specific assay for Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst detection in high-turbidity environmental water samples. Am.J.Trop.Med.Hyg 65 (1):1-9, 2001.

A. J. Logan, T. K. Stevik, R. L. Siegrist, and R. M. Ronn. Transport and fate of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in intermittent sand filters. Water Res. 35 (18):4359-4369, 2001.

C. J. Lowery, J. E. Moore, B. C. Millar, K. A. McCorry, J. Xu, P. J. Rooney, and J. S. Dooley. Occurrence and molecular genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. in surface waters in Northern Ireland. J.Appl.Microbiol. 91:774-779, 2001.

C. J. Lowery, P. Nugent, and J. E. Moore. PCR-IMS detection and molecular typing of Cryptosporidium parvum recovered from a recreational river source and an associated mussel (Mytilus edulis) bed in Northern Ireland. Epidemiol.Infect. 127 (3):545-553, 2001.

R. M. McCuin, Z Bukhari, J. Sobrinho, and J. L Clancy. Recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from source water concentrates using immunomagnetic separation. J.Microbiol.Methods 45:69-76, 2001.

K. Ono, H. Tsuji, S. K. Rai, A. Yamamoto, K. Masuda, T. Endo, H. Hotta, T. Kawamura, and S. Uga. Contamination of river water by Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in western Japan. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 67 (9):3832-3836, 2001.

R. Rimhanen-Finne, P. Ronkainen, and M-L. Hanninen. Simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia in sewage sludge by IC-PCR. J.Appl.Microbiol. 91 (6):1030-1035, 2001.

L. J. Robertson and B. Gjerde. Factors affecting recovery efficiency in isolation of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from vegetables for standard method development. J.Food Protect. 64 (11):1799-1805, 2001.

O. D 3rd Simmons, M. D Sobsey, C. D. Heaney, F. W 3rd Schaefer, and D. S Francy. Concentration and detection of cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water samples by method 1622 using ultrafiltration and capsule filtration. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 67 (3):1123-1127, 2001.

B. C. Ferrari, G. Vesey, K. A. Davis, M. Gauci, and D. A. Veal. A novel two-color flow cytometric assay for the detection of Cryptosporidium in environmental water samples. Cytometry 41:216-222, 2000.

S. Hallier-Soulier and E. Guillot. Detection of cryptosporidia and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in environmental water samples by immunomagnetic separation-polymerase chain reaction. J.Appl.Microbiol. 89 :5-10, 2000.

D. Kozwich, K. A. Johansen, K. Landau, C. A. Roehl, S. Woronoff, and P. A. Roehl. Development of a novel, rapid integrated Cryptosporidium parvum detection assay. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 66:2711-2717, 2000.

C. J. Lowery, J. E. Moore, B. C. Millar, D. P. Burke, K. A. McCorry, E. Crothers, and J. S. Dooley. Detection and speciation of Cryptosporidium spp. in environmental water samples by immunomagnetic separation, PCR and endonuclease restriction. J.Med.Microbiol. 49:779-785, 2000.

L. J. Robertson and B. Gjerde. Effect of sample holding time on recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from water samples. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 66:1724-1725, 2000.

L. J. Robertson and B. Gjerde. Isolation and enumeration of Giardia cysts, cryptosporidium oocysts, and Ascaris eggs from fruits and vegetables. J.Food Protect. 63:775-778, 2000.

P. Rushton, B. M. Place, and N. F Lightfoot. An evaluation of a laser scanning device for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in treated water samples. Letters in Applied Microbiology 30:303-307, 2000.

J. L. Sinclair. Enumeration of Cryptosporidium spp. in water with US EPA method 1622, USA. J AOAC Int 83:1108-1114, 2000.

Z. Wu, I. Nagano, A. Matsuo, S. Uga, I. Kimata, M. Iseki, and Y. Takahashi. Specific PCR primers for Cryptosporidium parvum with extra high sensitivity. Mol.and Cell.Probes 14:33-39, 2000.

G. P. Yakub and K. L. Stadterman-Knauer. Evaluation of immunomagnetic separation for recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis from high-iron matrices. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 33:3628-3631, 2000.