Messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis by in vitro transcription (IVT) is a cell-free process to produce RNA by enzymatic reactions. Synthesized RNA such as mRNA is widely utilized in research, drug development, vaccine production, and many other applications.
Key components of in vitro transcription are:
- Linear DNA as a template
- An RNA polymerase as a synthesizing enzyme, transcribing RNA from DNA
- Nucleotides as building blocks, which may be modified or unmodified
- Modifying enzymes for 5′ capping and 3′ poly-A tailing (for eukaryotic mRNA)
An RNase inhibitor and other components like pyrophosphatase may be added to the IVT reaction to help improve RNA yield.
Capping and tailing of mRNA.
Table 1. Key products for mRNA synthesis by in vitro transcription.
|DNA template generation||RNA synthesis||Post-transcriptional modification||DNA template and protein digestion|
Scaling mRNA synthesis for different applications
The IVT reaction can be scaled to produce mRNA from micrograms to milligram, or even gram scale and beyond, for the amount needed for your intended application. For manufacturing or production of RNA at large scales for therapeutic development, quality standards and regulatory requirements of the raw materials must be considered.
Thermo Fisher Scientific offers a comprehensive portfolio of in vitro transcription products to meet the requirements for the entire spectrum of mRNA applications—from research to therapeutic development and vaccine production. Many of these products are available individually or as kits designed to facilitate in vitro transcription.
Table 2. Recommended IVT solutions by mRNA synthesis scale.
|Scale||Micro scale||Mini scale||Mid-scale||Production scale|
|Volume||μLs to 200 mL||Up to 500 mL||1–5 L||10–50 L|
|mRNA yields (from multiple runs per year)||Microgram to milligram range||Milligram range||Milligram to gram range||Gram to kilogram range|
|Product quality support||For Research Use Only||For Research Use or Further Manufacturing||For Research Use or Further Manufacturing||For Research Use or Further Manufacturing|
Featured products for mRNA research
Featured products for mRNA production
Designed to meet critical process, scale, quality, and regulatory requirements for large-scale mRNA production of therapeutics and vaccines
Intended use of the products mentioned on this page varies. For specific intended use statements please refer to the product label.