Measure modulations of immune checkpoint markers
Immuno-Oncology ELISA kits enable accurate protein quantitation of immune-related targets in serum, plasma, and tissue culture supernatant. Immuno-oncology is a type of immunotherapy approach that uses the body’s immune system to help battle cancer–a different approach that goes beyond traditional methods such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.
Many recent drug development strategies have been to target immune checkpoint markers to enhance anti-tumor immunity. Immune checkpoints are cell pathways important in maintaining a normal immune response and protecting tissues from damage when the immune system is activated. Cancer cells dysregulate immune checkpoints and use them as a mechanism of immune resistance. For example, PD-1 masks cancer cells from T-cell recognition, thereby preventing the attack by T cells.
Another example is CTLA-4 that plays a role during the priming of a T cell by an antigen-presenting cell. Blocking of the CTLA-4 receptor by an antibody allows T cell activation, resulting in an anticancer immune response. Correlation has been observed with positive health benefits and elevated levels of quantified soluble CTLA-4 (sCTLA4) concentrations by ELISA in antibody-therapy treated subjects (Figure 1). Detecting and measuring immune checkpoint markers could be a promising pathway to better develop treatment strategies.
Cell signaling is a complex communication process to coordinate cell activities. Cell surface receptors respond to the microenvironment and trigger signal transduction cascades within the cell. The targets of such signaling pathways commonly include transcription factors that function to regulate gene expression. Errors in signaling interactions and cellular information processes are responsible for many diseases such as cancer and autoimmunity. It is important to have good tools to measure and understand these mechanisms of protein signaling. Invitrogen Immuno-Oncology ELISA kits are designed for many of these key targets and signaling pathways. These kits are manufactured to help ensure excellent quality and reproducibility. The kits must meet quality-controlled specifications for sensitivity, dynamic range, precision, specificity, recovery, and lot-to-lot consistency.
Figure 1. Statistical analysis following ipilimumab (CTLA-4 antibody drug) therapy shows correlation between responders and higher concentration levels of CTLA-4 in serum samples from melanoma patients using Invitrogen Human sCTLA-4 ELISA Cat. No. BMS276.
Reprinted from: Leung A.M., et al. Clinical benefit from ipilimumab therapy in melanoma patients may be associated with serum CTLA4 levels. Frontiers in Oncology 4:110 (2014).
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