ProQuantum high-sensitivity immunoassays for immuno-oncology research: ultra-low detection and ultra-low volume requirements
Cytokines are immune cell messengers that stimulate immune effector cells and stromal cells in tumors and also increase the recognition of tumor cells by cytotoxic effector cells. Investigations using animal models have revealed that cytokines display anti-tumor activity, resulting in an increased interest in the use of cytokines as a basis for cancer therapy. Many cytokines, such as GM-CSF, IL-7, IL-12, IL-15, IL-18 and IL-21, are in clinical trials for patients with advanced cancers. Pre-clinical research has focused on being able to neutralize cytokines that act to suppress the immune response, for example IL-10 and TGF-β. Adoptive cell therapy is an approach that makes modification to T cells to focus them on killing tumor cells, while controlling the cytokine response for optimal effect.
In addition, two cytokines are currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of melanoma (IL-2) and renal cell carcinoma (IFN-α). With these successes though, there continues to be a need to study the mechanisms of cytokine action in both activation and suppression of the immune system in order for them to be leveraged for the development of new anti-tumor treatments and immunotherapies against cancer.
The table below outlines key cytokines currently included in the ProQuantum menu of high sensitivity immunoassays for immuno-oncology research. Click on the cytokine to view the ProQuantum assay.
|Cytokine||Primary cell source||Primary target cell||Biological activity|
|GM-CSF||T cells, macrophages, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, mast cells||Bone marrow, progenitor cells, DC, macrophages
|Promotes antigen presentation, T cell homeostasis, hematopoietic cell growth factor|
|IL-1||Monocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, astrocytes||T cells, B cells, endothelial cells, hypothalamus, liver||Co-stimulation, cell activation,
inflammation, fever, acute phase reactant
|IL-2||T cells, NK cells||T cells, NK cells, B cells, monocytes||Cell growth/ activation|
|IL-3||T cells||Bone marrow progenitor cells||Cell growth and differentiation|
|IL-4||T cells||T cells, B cells||Th2 differentiation, cell growth/activation, IgE isotype switching|
|IL-5||T cells||B cells, eosinophils||Cell growth/activation|
|IL-6||T cells, macrophages, fibroblasts||T cells, B cells, liver||Co-stimulation, cell growth/ activation, acute phase reactant|
|IL-7||Fibroblasts, bone marrow stromal cells||Immature lymphoid, progenitors||T cell survival, proliferation, homeostasis, B cell development|
|IL-8||Macrophages, epithelial cells, platelets||Neutrophils||Activation, chemotaxis|
|IL-10||Th2 T cells||Macrophages, T cells||Inhibits antigen-presenting cells, inhibits cytokine production|
|IL-12||Macrophages, NK cells||T cells||Th1 differentiation|
|IL-15||Monocytes||T cells, NK cells||Cell growth/activation,NK cell development, blocks apoptosis|
|IL-18||Macrophages||T cells, NK cells, Bcells||Cell growth/activation,inflammation|
|IL-21||CD4+ T cells, NKT cells||NK cells, T cells, B cells||Cell growth/activation, control of allergic responses and viral, infections|
|IL-23||Antigen-presenting cells||T cells, NK cells, DC||Chronic inflammation, promotes Th17 cells|
|IFN-α||Plasmacytoid DC, NK cells, T cells, B cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoblasts||Macrophages, NK cells||Anti-viral, enhances MHC expression|
|IFN-γ||T cells, NK cells, NKT cells||Monocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, tissue cells||Cell growth/activation, enhances MHC expression|
|TGF-β||T cells, macrophages||T cells||Inhibits cell growth/activation|
|TNF- α||Macrophages, T cells||T cells, B cells, endothelial cells, hypothalamus, liver||Co-stimulation, cell activation, inflammation, fever, acute phase reactant|
References: S Lee and K Margolin, Cytokines in Cancer Immunotherapy Cancers (Basel). 2011 Dec; 3(4): 3856–3893.1.
Detect low levels of target-specific protein in immuno-oncology research
Invitrogen ProQuantum immunoassays are designed for easy-to-run, high-performance, protein detection, with no proprietary instrument to purchase. Utilizing proximity-based amplification technology, ProQuantum assays offer the analyte specificity of antibody–antigen binding with the signal detection and amplification capabilities of qPCR to achieve highly sensitivity. ProQuantum assays can also typically detect lower levels of protein with lower sample consumption than traditional methods. This can be particularly important when handling very limited volumes of precious samples from blood or tumor extracts. Limited sample volumes also present a challenge to detect very low levels of protein, but ProQuantum’s technology solves that by amplifying the signal beyond the capability of other available methods.
Whether conducting discovery or translational research to define the role and potential use of these cytokines and chemokines as targets in immunotherapies, the ability to measure precise differences at very high sensitivity levels with very small sample volumes is valuable. The next generation, ProQuantum high-sensitivity immunoassays, help immuno-oncology researchers to detect lower levels of protein with minimal consumption of precious samples than traditional methods.
Learn about how immuno-oncology ELISA kits measure immune-related targets in serum, plasma and tissue culture supernatant.
Immuno-oncology ELISA kits
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For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.