A primary antibody is an immunoglobulin that specifically binds to a particular protein or other biomolecule of research interest for the purpose of purifying or detecting and measuring it. Primary antibodies are developed as polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies using mouse, rat, rabbit, goat, and other animal species as hosts. They are produced and supplied in various forms, ranging from crude antiserum to antigen-purified preparations. Primary antibodies for frequently researched targets are also available conjugated to fluorescent dyes or biotin.
The Invitrogen antibody portfolio is expanding—see the latest additions
We are continuously updating our Invitrogen primary antibody portfolio with advanced verified products for use in flow cytometry, IHC/IF/ICC, western blotting, ELISA, and other applications. Check out our latest antibody highlights:
Glutamine synthetase (GLUL) antibodies for neurological disorder research
GLUL is an ATP-dependent enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of nitrogen by catalyzing the condensation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine. It is predominantly present in the brain, kidneys, and liver. In the brain, GLUL is exclusively located in astrocytes, where it mainly serves in the glutamate-glutamine cycle as well as nitrogen metabolism. Hepatic GLUL contributes to both enteral and systemic ammonia detoxification. Changes in GLUL gene expression or activity have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders, including hepatic encephalopathy, ischemia, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson’s disease, and astroglial neoplasms. Thermo Fisher Scientific offers advanced verified antibodies against GLUL for use in multiple applications including western blot and IF. Data from a mouse monoclonal GLUL antibody verified for target specificity using relative expression and CRISPR-Cas9 knockout are shown below.
Specificity of Glutamine Synthetase Monoclonal Antibody demonstrated by gene knockout using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. (A) Antibody specificity was demonstrated by detection of differential basal expression of the target across tissues owing to their inherent genetic constitution. Relative expression of GLUL was observed in K-562, HT29, HepG2, IMR-32, U2OS, PANC-1, A549 cells, and mouse and rat brain in comparison to mouse and rat heart, using Glutamine Synthetase Monoclonal Antibody (GT1055) (Cat. No. MA5-27749) on a western blot. (B) Knockout of GLUL was achieved by CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing using LentiArray Lentiviral sgRNA (Cat. No. A32042, assay ID: CRISPR531952_LV) and LentiArray Cas9 Lentivirus (Cat. No. A32064). Western blot analysis of GLUL was performed by loading 20 μg of HeLa wild type (lane 1), HeLa Cas9 control (lane 2), and HeLa GLUL knockout (lane 3) whole-cell extracts. The blots were probed with the primary antibody (1:1,000 dilution) and detected by chemiluminescence with Goat Anti-Mouse IgG (H+L), Superclonal Recombinant Secondary Antibody, HRP (Cat. No. A28177, 1:10,000 dilution), using the iBright FL1500 Imaging System. Chemiluminescent detection was performed using the Novex ECL Chemiluminescent Substrate Reagent Kit (Cat. No. WP20005).
Featured primary antibodies categories
Learn about our thousands of mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, and other species of monoclonal primary antibodies.
Learn about our thousands of rabbit, goat, sheep, chicken, and other species of polyclonal primary antibodies.
Our broad portfolio of antibody conjugates—including Alexa Fluor dye and eFluor dye conjugates—is designed to help you answer complex cell biology questions, in less time and with less sample than other approaches.
Learn about our Invitrogen ABfinity rabbit monoclonal antibodies, developed by immunizing animals, screening for functionality, and then cloning the genes into high-level mammalian expression vectors.
Select a cell marker, organelle marker, or subcellular component antibody to identify and outline cellular structures and organelles by detecting proteins that are specific to them.
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