The nucleus is an identifying feature in all eukaryotic cells. It is bound by a double membrane and contains most of the cell’s genetic material. The nucleus functions to maintain the genes within chromosomes and to regulate their expression, thereby controlling the activities of the cell. Nuclear pores provide a channel across the otherwise impermeable nuclear membrane through which small molecules and ions can freely move and large molecules can be actively transported by carrier proteins. While the nucleus does not contain any membrane bound sub compartments, it does include a number of unique bodies, the nucleolus being the most easily identified. The nucleolus is the site of ribosomal RNA transcription and ribosome assembly. Nuclear organizing regions (NORs), which are made up of tandem repeats of rRNA genes, form the foundation of the nucleolar structure. Chromatin, which consists of DNA and protein, is also found in the nucleus and is organized into chromosomes during mitosis. Centromeres serve to link chromosome pairs, and the centromere is the site of spindle fiber attachment via kinetochores during mitosis.
Nuclear marker antibodies can aid in the study of the morphology and dynamics of the nucleus and its structures. Nuclear marker antibodies also provide a way for monitoring nuclear changes throughout cellular processes. Invitrogen nuclear marker antibodies are designed to dependably detect the key nuclear targets. Each antibody is validated for use in various applications. Key nuclear marker targets include:
Nuclear marker antibody targets
Each Invitrogen nuclear marker antibody is validated for use in applications such as ELISA, western blot, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and immunoprecipitation.
Immunofluorescent analysis of HeLa cells using a LSD1 polyclonal antibody (Cat. No. PA5-11306). HeLa cells were fixed with 4% PFA (20 minutes), permeabilized with Triton X-100 (0.1%, 10 minutes), then incubated with a LSD1 polyclonal antibody (Cat. No. PA5-11306) (1:25, 1 hour at 37°C). Primary antibody was detected with fluor-conjugated donkey anti-rabbit secondary antibody (green) at 1:400 dilution for 50 minutes at 37°C). Actin filaments have been labeled with dye-conjugated phalloidin (red). Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (blue) (10 µg/mL, 10 minutes).
Immunohistochemical analysis of Histone H2A.x. Paraffin-embedded mouse duodenum tissue was used for nuclear detection of Histone H2A.x. of using a Histone H2A.x polyclonal antibody (Cat. No. PA5-28778) at a dilution of 1:500.
Immunofluorescent staining of ASH2L in human cell line U-2 OS. Image shows positivity in the nucleus but exclusion from the nucleoli. Samples were probed using an ASH2L Polyclonal Antibody (Cat. No. PA5-59937).