The proteasome is a large multi-protein complex that serves to degrade damaged or unneeded proteins in a cell by proteolysis. Every proteasome is made up of four stacked rings that form a central core where proteins are degraded. Each of the four rings contains seven subunits. The two inner rings consist of seven beta subunits that are primarily catalytic. The two outer rings are made up of seven alpha subunits which form the entrance to the core. These alpha subunits are structural and function as a gate to block unregulated entrance to the interior. They also contain docking domains for regulatory particles.
Proteasomal degradation is critical to many cellular processes including cellular metabolism, heat shock and stress response, antigen presentation, modulation of cell surface receptors and ion channels, cell cycle regulation, transcription, and signaling factors. Several genetic diseases are associated with defects in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Some examples of affected proteins include those linked to cystic fibrosis, Angelman’s syndrome, and Liddle syndrome.
Proteasome marker antibodies can aid in the study of proteasome dynamics and structure.. Proteasome marker antibodies can also help elucidate the role or roles a protein may play in a number of tasks that are centered in or influenced by the proteasomes. Invitrogen proteasome marker antibodies are designed to dependably detect the key proteasome targets. Each antibody is validated for use in various applications. Key proteasome marker antibodies include:
Immunofluorescent analysis of proteasome 20S X (green) showing staining in the cytoplasm and nucleus of Hela cells (right) compared to a negative control without primary antibody (left). Formalin-fixed cells were permeabilized with 0.1% Triton X-100 in TBS for 5–10 minutes and blocked with 3% BSA-PBS for 30 minutes at room temperature. Cells were probed with a proteasome 20S X polyclonal antibody (Cat. No. PA1-977) in 3% BSA-PBS at a dilution of 1:100 and incubated overnight at 4°C in a humidified chamber. Cells were washed with PBST and incubated with a DyLight 488-conjugated secondary antibody (Cat. No. 35553) in PBS at room temperature in the dark. F-actin (red) was stained with red-fluorescent phalloidin, and nuclei (blue) were stained with Hoechst or DAPI dye. Images were taken at a magnification of 60x.