Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the capacity to self-renew and to differentiate into specialized cell types, such as neurons, liver, or muscle cells. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) that can divide for a long period in culture. They have the potential to differentiate and become any cell type found in the human body. Adult stem cells such as neural stem cells (NSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are multipotent stem cells. The differentiation of multipotent stem cells is limited to the cell types found in the tissue of origin. These cells help to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found.

Stem cells show tremendous potential in the areas of developmental biology, disease modeling research, drug development screening, and cell therapy studies. Antibody-based detection methods such as immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry are commonly used for the characterization of various stem cells and their differentiated cells. The use of high-quality antibodies is one of the key factors contributing to the success and rapid progress of stem cell research. Thermo Fisher Scientific offers a comprehensive library of primary antibodies for stem cell research.

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To find more information about the different types of stem cells, stem cell markers, and antibodies we offer, please click on the expandable sections below.

Two commonly studied types of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced PSCs (iPSCs).  Human ESCs are isolated from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage of a developing embryo. iPSCs are similar or equivalent to ESCs but are generated via ectopic expression of reprogramming genes such as OCT4, KLF4, SOX2, and c-MYC  in adult somatic cells. iPSCs have revolutionized stem cell research by simplifying the derivation of certain stem cells that can then be used to model diseases in a dish. These research models can be valuable in defining the mechanisms of disease pathology and can consequently play a vital role in the possible identification of therapeutic targets and drug discovery. According to research, the unlimited supply of iPSCs that can be directed to become functionally mature cells also holds great promise as a source material for cell therapies that address a variety of diseases such as diabetes, liver diseases, and Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.

Pluripotent stem cell markers

To maintain the undifferentiated stem cell state, both iPSCs and ESCs require the expression of key transcription factors such as Nanog and OCT4 that regulate genes important for cell division, differentiation, and development. In addition to these transcription factors, a specific set of cell-surface proteins such as TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, SSEA3, and SSEA4 are typically expressed by the PSCs. Detection of the presence of these markers is one of the first steps in characterizing newly derived iPSC and ESC lines. Specific cell staining can be achieved using antibodies against these established pluripotency markers.

Immunofluorescence analysis of pluripotent stem cell markers in human induced pluripotent stem cells. Gibco™ Human Episomal iPSCs (Cat. No.  A18945) grown on vitronectin (VTN-N) (Cat. No. A14700) in Essential 8™ Flex Medium (Cat. No. A2858501) were stained with the indicated Thermo Scientific™ DyLight™ dye–conjugated primary antibodies. Left: DyLight 488–conjugated anti-SSEA5 (Cat. No. MA1-144-D488, green) and DyLight 650–conjugated anti-SSEA4 (Cat. No. MA1-021-D650, red). Middle: DyLight 488–conjugated anti-Lin28 (MA1-016-D488). Right: DyLight 650–conjugated anti-Sox20 (MA1-014-D650). Nuclear DNA was stained with Invitrogen™ DAPI (Cat. No. D1306).

Table 1. Antibodies for commonly used pluripotent stem cell markers.

Target Antibody product number Applications
OCT4/POU5F1 701756 (3H8L6), A13998 (C30A3), MA1-104 (9B7), MA1-104-D488 (9B7), MA1-104-HRP (9B7), A18525 (EM92) ICC, IF, flow, WB
SSEA-4 MA1-021 (MC813-70), MA-1021-D488 (MC813-70), MA1-021-D550 (MC813-70), , MA1-021-D650 (MC813-70), MA1-021-PE (MC813-70) ICC/IF, flow
TRA-1-60 411000 (cl.A), MA1-023 (tra-1-60), MA1-023-D488 (tra-1-60), MA1-023-D550 (tra-1-60), MA1-023-D650 (tra-1-60), MA1-023-HRP (tra-1-60), MA1-023-PE (tra-1-60) ICC/IF, flow, WB
TRA-1-81 411100 (cl.26), MA1-024 (tra-1-81), MA1-024-D488 (tra-1-81), MA1-024-D550 (tra-1-81), MA1-024-D650 (tra-1-81), MA1-024-HRP (tra-1-81), MA1-024-PE (tra-1-81) ICC, flow, WB
NANOG MA1-017 (23D2-3C6), MA1-017-D488 (23D2-3C6), MA1-01-7D550 (23D2-3C6), MA1-017-D650 (23D2-3C6), MA1-017-HRP (23D2-3C6), PA1-097 ICC, flow, WB
SOX2 48-1400 (20G5), MA1-014 (20G5), MA1-014-D488 (20G5), MA1-014-D550 (20G5), MA1-014-D650 (20G5), MA1-014-HRP (20G5), PA1094 ICC, flow, WB, IP, ChIP
LIN28 MA1-016 (14E6-4E6), MA1-016-D488 (14E6-4E6), MA1-016-D550 (14E6-4E6), MA1-016-D650 (14E6-4E6), MA1-016-HRP (14E6-4E6), PA1-096 ICC, flow, WB
SSEA-1 MA1-022 (MC-480), MA1-022-D488 (MC-480), MA1-022-D550 (MC-480), MA1-022-D650 (MC-480), MA1-022-PE (MC-480), 18-0122 (MY-1), 41-1200, MHCD1501 (VIMC6), MHCD1504, MHCD1528, MHCD1530 Flow , ICC/IF
c-MYC MA1-980 (9E10), 700648 (27H46L35), 13-2500 (9E10), 13-2511 (9E10), A21280 (289-19510), A21281, AHO0052 (9E11) ICC, flow, IHC, WB, ELISA
SSEA-3 41-4400 (MC-631), MA1-020 (MC-631), MA1-020-D488 (MC-631), MA1-020-D650 (MC-631), MA1-020-PE (MC-631) ICC/IF, flow
SSEA-5 MA1-144 (8E11), MA1-144-D488 (8E11), MA1-144-D550, MA1-144-D650 (8E11), MA1-144-D755 (8E11), MA1-144-PE (8E11) ICC, flow,  WB
KLF4 710659 (1HCLC), PA1-095 WB, ICC, IF
PRDM14 PA1-114 IF, WB, flow
SALL4 720030 WB, IF
DNMT3B PA1-884, 49-1028 WB, IHC, ELISA, ChIP

Pluripotent stem cell differentiation

PSCs have the potential to differentiate into cells of the three embryonic germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm, which can further develop into various differentiated cell types

For information on other stem cell characterization and analysis tools, see Stem Cell Analysis.

Both iPSCs and ESCs can form embryoid bodies (EBs) when cultured in suspension in the absence of bFGF. EBs can spontaneously differentiate towards the three germ layers, which can be further developed into various differentiated cell types.

Table 2. Antibodies for representative germ layer markers.

Germ layer Target Antibody product number (clone number)
Mesendoderm MIXL1 PA5-40323
  Brachyury (T) MA5-17185 (1H9A2), PA5-23405
  GSC MA5-23070 (1C2), PA5-28380
  EOMES PA5-12261, MA5-24291 (644730) 
Mesoderm Smooth muscle actin MA5-11544 (1A4 (asm-1)), PA5-16697, 701457 (17H19L35), 710487 (17HCLC), MA1-744 (mAbGEa)
  ABCA4 P21933 (3F4)
  NKX2.5 701622 (4H5L9), 710634 (4HCLC)
  PDGFRα 701142 (7H13L1), 710169 (7HCLC), PA516571, PA516742
Endoderm Alpha-fetoprotein 710486 (9HCLC), 18-003 (ZSA06), MA5-1275 (C3), MA5-14665 (F1-6P2A8-P2B9A9), MA5-14666 (P5B8), PA5-16658, PA5-16801
  FOXA2 701698 (9H5L7), 710730 (9HCLC), MA5-15542 (7H4B7), 720061, A16568
  SOX17 PA5-23352, PA5-23382
  FOXA1 MA1-091 (3A8)
  KLF5 42-3200
  GATA4 PA1-102
  GATA6 PA1-104
  PDX-1 PA3-830
Ectoderm Beta III tubulin MA1-118 (2G10)
  PAX3 701147 (16H22L10), 710178 (16HCLC), PA1-107, 38-1801
  PAX6 42-6600, MA1-109 (13B10-1A10)
  SOX1 PA5-23351, PA5-23370
  OTX2 701948 (14H14L5), 710981 (14HCLC), MA5-15854 (1H12C4B5), MA5-15855 (1H12G8B2), PA5-23406, PA5-29914

Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to neural lineage cells

Differentiation paths of PSCs to neural lineages.

Table 3. Antibodies for commonly used markers for neural stem cells.

Cell type Target Antibody product number (clone number)
Neural stem cells PAX6 42-6600, MA1-109 (13B10-1A10)
  SOX2 48-1400 (20G5), MA1-014 (20G5), MA1-014HRP, PA1-094
  SOX1 PA5-23351, PA5-23370
  Nestin MA1-110 (10C2)
  FOXG1 PA5-26794, PA1-31654
  PAX3 701147 (16H22L10), 710178 (16HCLC), PA1-107, 38-1801
  FZD4 710731 (22HCLC), 720062

Table 4. Antibodies for commonly used markers for glial cells. 

Cell type Target Antibody product number (clone number)
Glial progenitors CD44 701406 (19H8L4), 710413 (19HCLC), MA5-12394 (5F12), MA5-13887 (156-3C11), MA5-13890 (156-3C11), MHCD4401 (MEM-85), MHCD4404, RM5704 (IM7.8.1)
Astrocytes GFAP 13-0300 (2.2B10), MA5-12023 (ASTRO6), PA5-16291, A21282 (131-1771), A21294, A21295
  EAAT2 (GLT-1) 711020 (9HCLC), PA3-040A
  ALDH1L1 720169
  S100beta 701340 (16H24L21), 710363 (16HCLC)
  Glutamine synthetase 710963 (7HCLC)
OPCs/oligodendrocytes Olig2 MA5-15810 (1G11), P21954
  Olig1 PA5-21613, MA5-23954 (257219), MA5-22956 (2A4)
  NG2 37-2300 (N143.8), 37-2700 (D120.43/D4.11/N143.8/N109.6), 41-2000 (LHM2)
  NOGO-A 36-6600
  PDGFRA PA5-16571, PA5-16742, 701142 (7H13L1), 710169 (7HCLC)
  MBP MA5-15922 (2H9), PA5-16413
  MOG MA1-21809 (CE1), PA5-19602
  APC 710859 (1HCLC), PA5-16883
  GalC PA5-42652, PA5-27352

Table 5. Antibodies for commonly used markers for various neurons.

Cell type Target Antibody product number (clone number)
Neurons Beta III tubulin MA1-118 (2G10), 480011 (38F4)
  Calretinin 710559 (4HCLC),  MA5-11479 (5A5), MA5-12539 (DAK Calret 1), MA514540 (SP13), PA51-6681
  MAP2 MA5-12823 (AP20), 13-1500 (M13), MA5-12826 (AP18)
  DCX MA5-17066 (2G5), 48-1200
  Neurofilament H, M, L, Pan 711025 (4HCLC), MA1-2012 (3G3), MA1-2010 (DA2), MA1-2011 (3H11), 13-0500 (RMO-44), 13-0700 (RMO-270), 34-1000 (RMO 14.9), 13-1300 (RMdO-20)
  HuC/D A21271, A21272
  PSD93 711031 (7HCLC), PA1-043, 34-4700
  PSD95 700902 (23H23L19), MA1-045 (6G6-1C9), MA1-046 (7E3-1B8), 51-6900
DA progenitors/DA neurons OTX2 701948 (14H14L5), MA5-15854 (1H12C4B5), MA5-15855 (1H12G8B2), PA5-23406, PA5-29914
  LMX1A 710980 (20HCLC)
  TH P21962, 701949 (9H8L15), 710982 (9HCLC), MA1-24654 (185)
  Nurr1 MA1-195 (N1404)
  PITX3 701181 (5H10L5), 710212 (7M5HCLC), 38-2850
GABA neurons GAD2/GAD65 398200 (ZG002), PA5-32430, PA5-22260, PA5-18369, MA5-18053 (144)
  GABA PA5-32241
  GAD65, GAD67 PA1-84572
  Somatostatin 710968 (9HCLC), PA5-16253, MA5-16987 (YC7)
Cholinergic neurons ChAT PA1-4710, PA1-4738, PA1-9027, PA1-18313, PA5-29653
Motor neuron progenitors/motor neurons NKX6.1/6.2 PA5-23070
  HOXB4 PA5-23366
  NGN2 PA5-34472, PA5-11892
  ISL1 MA5-15515 (1H9), MA5-15516 (1B1), PA5-27789
  HB9 (MNX1) PA5-23407
  Synapsin A6442
Glutamatergic neurons vGlut1 48-2400
  vGlut2 42-7800
  NMDAR1 700685 (IH13L3), 32-0500 (54.1), PA3-102
  NMDAR2B 71-8600, PA3-105, A-6474, MA1-2014 (NR2B), 32-0700 (B3-13B11)

Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to cardiovascular lineage cells

Table 6. Antibodies for commonly used markers for cardiovascular lineage.

Cell type Target Antibody product number (clone number)
Cardiovascular mesoderm PDGFRa 701142; 710169; PA5-16571; PA5-16742
  KDR MA5-15157; MA5-15556; PA5-16487; 39-2400
  VCAM1 MA5-11447; MA1-12637
  CD13 MHCD1301; MHCD1304; MHCD1305; MHCD1306; MHCD1320
  ROR2 PA5-14727PA5-14729; PA5-27991
  Hand1 PA5-19751; MA5-15436: 720261
  MIXL1 PA5-40323
  MESP1 MA5-15645; PA5-49441
  MESP2 MA5-17121
Cardiac progenitors SIRPA PA5-29544; PA1-30537; PA1-30779; MA1-74228; PA5-19869; A18387
  ISL-1 MA5-15515; MA5-15516; PA5-27789
  TBX5 42-6500, MA5-15526; PA5-29845
  NKX2.5 710634; 701622
  TBX20 PA5-40669
  GATA4 PA5-49431; 710634; 701622
  Troponin I, slow skeletal 701585; 710580
  MEF2C PA5-13287; PA5-13289; PA5-13290; PA5-28247; MA5-17119
Cardiomyocytes Troponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles PA5-51325; MA1-20128; MA1-22697; MA1-22698
  MYL2 MA5-15496
  MYL7 PA5-30789
  cTNT (TNNT2) MA5-12960
  NPPA PA5-29559
  NPPB PA1-28352; MA1-34237; MA1-91673; MA5-15361; MA5-15362; MA5-15363; PA5-21321; MA1-20886; MA1-20584; MA1-20622; MA1-20626; MA1-20631
  IRX4 PA5-23405; MA5-17185
  Alpha-actinin PA5-17308; PA5-27870; PA5-44889; MA1-22863
  Caveolin-3 PA1-066
  b-MHC (MYH7) MA1-83347
  Connexin 43 13-8300; 138388; 71-0700
  HCN4 MA3-903
  SERCA1 MA3-911; MA3-912
  SERCA2 MA3-910; MA3-919

Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to definitive endoderm, hepatocyte-like, and pancreatic beta cells

Sequential differentiation strategies have been reported that allow for generation of functional glucose-responsive, insulin-secreting beta cells and hepatocyte-like cells from PSCs that have hepatic activities. 

Schematic diagram of in vitro PSC differentiation to generate beta cells and hepatocyte-like cells.

Table 7. Antibodies for commonly used markers for pancreatic and hepatic lineage cells.

Cell type Target Antibody product number (clone number)
Definitive endoderm FOXA2 701698 (9H5L7), 710730 (9HCLC), MA5-15542 (7H4B7), 720061
  SOX17 PA5-23352
  CXCR4 35-8800 (12G5), PA3-305, MHCXCR404 (12G5)
  cKit 700135 (53H8L29), 701494 (HC34LC14), 710523 (2HCLC), 18-0384 (2E4), 34-8800, CD11700 (104D2) PA5-16458, PA5-16770, RM6221 (2B8)
  GATA4 PA1-102
  GATA6 PA1-104
Pancreatic lineage PDX1 PA3-830, MA5-17148 (5A5)
Negative–surface marker (polyhormonal endocrine cells, not pancreatic progenitors)  Chromogranin A MA5-13096 (LK2H10), MA5-13281 (PHE5), MA5-14536 (SP12), PA5-16685, 18-0094
Beta cells Insulin MA5-12029 (INS04 (E2-E3)), MA5-12042 (INS04 + INS05), 701265 (19H4L12), 710289 (19HCLC)
Negative markers Somatostatin 710968 (9HCLC), PA5-16253, MA5-16987 (YC7)
Negative markers Glucagon 701296 (24H1L3), 710316 (3HCLC), 710320 (24HCLC)
Hepatic lineage HNF1B PA1-24459
  Alpha-fetoprotein 710486 (9HCLC), 18-003 (ZSA06), MA5-14665 (F1-6P2A8-P2B9A9), MA5-14666 (P5B8), PA5-16658, PA5-16801
  HNF4A MA1-199 (K9218)
  PROX1 P21936 (5G10)
  CK14 MA5-11599 (LL002), MA5-11596 (LL002, biotin), PA5-16722
  Albumin (ALB) MA5-14698 (1E1), MA5-14717 (10C7), MA5-14718 (12D12), MA5-14677 (2B12), PA516600
  AAT PA1-343
  Cytochrome P450 3A4 MA5-15496
  Cytochrome P450 3A4 + 3A5 MA3-032 (F24 P2 B10)
  Cytochrome P450 1A2 MA3-037 (3B8C1), PA1-341
  Cytochrome P450 3A7 MA3-034 (F19 P2 H2)
  NPPB PA1-28352; MA1-34237; MA1-91673; MA5-15361; MA5-15362; MA5-15363; PA5-21321; MA1-20886; MA1-20584; MA1-20622; MA1-20626; MA1-20631
  IRX4 PA5-23405; MA5-17185; PA5-46984
  Hepatocyte MA5-12417 (OCH1E5)

Multipotent stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the ability to self-renew for long periods of time and differentiate into specialized cells with specific functions. For example, multipotent adult stem cells in bone marrow, or hematopoietic stem cells, can give rise to all blood cell types, and neural stem cells in the brain can give rise to glial and neuronal cells. However, mesenchymal stem cells can give rise to several cell types found in bone, muscle, cartilage, fat and other tissues. 

Hematopoietic stem cells

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are multipotent cells that can give rise to all cell types in the blood, including B and T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, platelets, and erythrocytes. HSCs are very small and are non-adherent cells, which make them very difficult to purify or visualize by microscopy. In their quiescent state, HSCs can be found in the red bone marrow. Typically, HSCs are identified by flow cytometry using 10-to-14 antibody panels targeting various cell-surface antigens (1). 

Flow cytometry analysis of C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow cells using anti–mouse Ly-6A/E PE antibody (Cat. No. A18486) and anti–mouse CD117 (c-kit) APC (Cat. No. A18622).

Recent advances in reprogramming technologies and hematopoietic differentiation from human PSCs have opened novel opportunities to study hematopoietic development and model hematological diseases.

Table 8. Antibodies for hematopoietic stem cell lineage markers.

Cell type Target Antibody product number (clone number)
Mesoderm APLNR PA5-33343
  KDR (FLK1) 36-0900, 39-2400 (ZV001), 44-1053G, PA5-16487
Hematovascular mesodermal precursors SCL/TAL-1 PA5-30586
  GATA2 710242 (11HCLC), PA1100
  RUNX1 701202 (3H2L6), 710233 (3HCLC)
Angiogenic hematopoietic progenitors CD235a (Glycophorin A) MA512484 (JC159), MHGLA01 (CLB-ery-1 (AME-1)
Hematopoietic progenitors CD43 MA5-12194 (MDF-T1), MA5-13923 (84-3C1), MA5-16978 (W3/13)
Hematopoietic stem cells CD34 RM3604 (MEC 14.7), 180227 (BI-3C5), CD3458101 (581)
  cKit/CD117 700135, 701494, 710523, 180384, 348800, CD11700, PA5-16458, PA5-16770, RM6221
  CD90 (Thy-1) MA5-16683 (FF-10), MA5-17747 (5a-8), MA5-17752 (IBL-1)
  CD49f (Integrin a6) 701178 (5H14L18), 710209 (5HCLC)
  CD3e 070303, 080102, 180102MA5-14482 (EP449E), MHCD0300
  CD45 MA5-12795 (Bra55), MA5-13197 (PD7/26/16 + 2B11), MHCD4501 (HI30), MR6918 (OX-1)
  Ly6A/E (Sca-1) MA1-70082 (D7), A18486 (D7)
Negative marker CD38 MA5-14413 (38C03 (SPC32)), MHCD3801 (HIT2)

Schematic diagram of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation.

Mesenchymal stem cells

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into many cell types, including bone, fat, cartilage, muscle, and skin. MSCs were initially isolated from bone marrow samples, but more recently they have been found in many other types of tissue, resulting in a heterogeneous and abundant population of cells with high differentiation potential. The possible use of MSCs in treating various diseases such as cardiovascular disease and Crohn’s disease is a popular stem cell research topic (2).

According to the International Society for Cell Therapy (ISCT), which proposed criteria based on the characterization of in vitro cultured cells, MSCs should express surface markers CD73, CD90, and CD105 in the absence of CD34, CD45, CD14, HLA-DR, CD11b, and CD79a. In vivo phenotypic studies have revealed that MSCs are positive for CD146, Stro-1, CD90, CD105, CD44, and CD73, and negative for CD45, CD11b, and CD14. We offer a comprehensive library of primary antibodies for MSCs. This library includes antibodies to positive and negative markers identified by the ISCT to define human MSCs.

Immunofluorescence analysis of human mesenchymal stem cells cultured under basal conditions using anti-CD105 antibody (Cat. No. MHCD10500). Nuclear DNA was stained with DAPI (blue).

Table 9. Antibodies for positive and negative markers for mesenchymal stem cells.

  Target Antibody product number (clone number)
MSC-positive markers CD13 MHCD1305 (TüK1), MA1-19359 (WM15), MA1-12033 (E735), MA1-33449 (R3-63)
  CD29 (ITGB1) MA2910 (TS2116), CD2920 (MEM-101A), MA5-17103 (3B6), MA5-11429 (7F10), MA5-13658 (4B7R), PA5-29606
  CD36 MA5-14112 (185-1G2), PA1-16813, MA1-19407 (TR9), MA5-16941 (SMØ)
  CD44 701406 (19H8L4), 710413 (19HCLC), MA5-12394 (5F12), MA5-13887 (156-3C11), MA5-13890 (156-3C11), MHCD4401 (MEM-85), MHCD4404, RM5704 (IM7.8.1)
  CD73 41-0200 (7G2), MA5-15537 (1D7)
  CD90 (Thy-1) MA5-16683 (FF-10), MA5-17747 (5a-8), MA5-17752 (IBL-1), MA1-19029 (1aG4/C5), A15761 (5E10)
  CD105 MA5-11854 (SN6h), MA5-17041 (3A9), MA1-19231 (MEM-226), MA1-19408 (MEM-229), PA5-16895, PA1-27884, MHCD10500 (SN6)
  CD146 710230 (2HCLC), 701199 (2H17L14), 35-7800 (OJ79), 34-6800, MA1-25100 (P1H12), MA1-34759 (HMB45), PA5-28893, PA5-24605
  Stro-1 39-8401 (STRO-1)
MSC-negative markers CD11b CD11b00 (VIM12), RM2804 (M1/70.15)
  CD14 MHCD1400 (TüK4), Q10053 (HIT2)
  CD19 Q10379 (6D5)
  CD31 MA3100 (HEC7), MA3105 (2H8), 37-0700 (MEM-05), RM5228 (390), MA5-15336 (2F7B2), MA5-13188 (JC/70A), MHCD3115-4 (MBC78.2), PA5-16301, MA5-12564 (1A10)
  CD34 RM3604 (MEC 14.7), 180227 (BI-3C5), CD3458101 (581)
  CD79a MA511636 (JCB117), MHCD79a04 (HM47), MA5-13212 (HM47/A9), MA5-14556 (SP18), MA515234 (2F11)
  CD45 MA5-12795 (Bra55), MA5-13197 (PD7/26/16 + 2B11), MHCD4501 (HI30), MR6918 (OX-1)
  HLA-DR H11212 (Tü36)

Human MSCs have the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes (fat), chondrocytes (cartilage), and osteoblasts (bone) under appropriate culture conditions. Bone marrow–derived MSCs also have the capacity to differentiate into other mesoderm-derived tissues such as myocytes (muscle cells), which express desmin, β-myosin heavy chain, α-cardiac actin, and other muscle cell markers. The table below summarizes representative markers of different cell types that can be derived from different mesenchymal lineages, and the respective antibodies we offer.

Differentiation potential of MSCs.

Table 10. Antibodies for representative markers for different cell types derived from mesenchymal stem cells.

  Target Antibody product number (clone number)
Chondrocyte to cartilage Collagen (type II) (COL2A1) MA5-12786 (2B1.5), MA5-13026 (6B3), MA1-37493 (2B1.5)
  Aggrecan (ACAN) MA1-34728 (MA75A95), PA1-1745, PA1-1746, MA3-16888 (BC-3), MA1-80187 (7E1), AHP0022 (969D4D11)
  Dermatopontin PA5-14396
  SOX9 MA5-17177 (1B11), PA1-29537
  Decorin (DCN) PA1-1744
  MMP13 MA5-14238 (VIIIA2), MA514244 (LIPCO IID1),  PA5-16566, 701287 (3H13L17), 710311 (3HCLC)
  Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) MA1-20221 (MA37C94 (HC484D1)), PA5-19850
  Annexin VI (ANXA6) PA1-37086
Adipogenic lineage PPARy2 PA1-824, PA3-821A, PA3-820, MA5-15417 (3A4A9), MA5-14889 (K.242.9), 419300 (A3409A)
  (LPL) Lipoprotein lipase MA5-15503 (2C5), MA5-18055 (5D2)
  Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) 701158 (2H3L2), 710189 (2HCLC)
  Leptin (LEP) PA1-051; PA1-052
  Adiponectin MA1-054 (19F1), PA1-054, 701148 (11H4L4), 710179 (11HCLC)
Osteoblastic lineage Osteocalcin (BGLAP) MA1-20786 (OC4-30), MA1-25584 (OCG2), MA1-82975 (2H9F11F8), MA1-82974 ( 8H12F910), MA1-20788 (OCG4), 33-5700 (OCG-3), 33-5400 (OC4-30), PA5-11849
  Osteopontin (SPP1)
702184 (24H5L3), 711215 (24HCLC), MA5-17180 (7C5H12), PA5-16821
  RUNX2 (CBFA1) 41-1400 (ZR002), PA5-14816
  PHEX PA5-21714
Myoblast fusion to muscle Myogenic differentiation antigen (MYOD1) MA5-12902 (5.8A), MA5-12907 (5.2F)
  MYOG MA5-11486 (F5D), MA5-11658 (F12B)
  MYL1 MA1-90701 (MY32), MA1-24940 (MY21), PA1-26470
  GATA6 PA1-104
  NKX2.5 701622 (4H5L9), 710634 (4HCLC)
  TBX5 42-6500, MA5-15526 (7B11)
  MYH6 MA1-26180 (3-48)
  Connexin 32 (GJB1) 71-0600, 13-8200 (CX-2C2), 358900 (5F9A9)
  NPPA PA5-29559
  GATA4 PA1-102, MA5-15532 (6H10)
  Transgelin (TAGLN) PA5-18252
  MYH11 MA5-11648 (SMMS-1),  MA5-11971 (SMM10)
  ACTA2 MA5-11544 (1A4 (asm-1)), MA5-11547, PA5-16697, 701457 (17H19L35), 710487 (17HCLC), 18-0106 (1A4), MA1-744 (mAbGEa)
  Calponin (CNN1) MA5-11620 (CALP), MA5-14464 (EP798Y)

Neural stem cells

Mammalian neurogenesis begins with the induction of neuroectoderm, which forms a neural plate and then folds to give rise to the neural tube. These structures are made up of a layer of neuroepithelial progenitors (NEPs). NEPs can be rapidly turned into primitive neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs are self-renewing, multipotent progenitors present in developing and adult mammalian central nervous systems. NSCs derived in vitro from pluripotent stem cells are characterized by the expression of markers such as the transcription factors SOX1, SOX2, PAX6, and the type VI intermediate filament protein nestin.

Characterization of neural stem cells derived in vitro from iPSCs. Neural stem cells were derived from PD-3 iPSCs using Gibco™ PSC Neural Induction Medium (Cat. No. A1647801). (A) Immunocytochemistry analysis using anti-nestin (Cat. No. MA110) followed by Invitrogen™ DyLight™ D488 Goat Anti-Mouse (Cat. No. 35502, green); Anti-Sox2 (Cat. No. PA1049) followed by DyLight D594 Goat Anti-Rabbit (Cat. No. 35560, red); and Anti-Pax6 (Cat. No. MA1109) followed by DyLight D488 Goat Anti-Mouse (Cat. No. 35502, green). (B). Flow cytometry analysis was done using the same primary antibodies followed by DyLight D488 Goat Anti-Rabbit (Cat. No. 35552).

Table 11. Antibodies for commonly used markers for neural stem cells.

Cell type Target Antibody product number (clone number)
Neural stem cells PAX6 42-6600, MA1-109 (13B10-1A10)
  SOX2 48-1400 (20G5), MA1-014 (20G5),  MA1-014HRP, PA1-094
  SOX1 PA5-23351, PA5-23370
  Nestin MA1-110 (10C2)
  FOXG1 PA5-26794, PA1-31654
  PAX3 701147 (16H22L10), 710178 (16HCLC), PA1-107, 38-1801
  FZD4 710731 (22HCLC), 720062

Other stem cell research resources

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