What are recombinant antibodies?

Unlike traditional monoclonal antibody manufacturing, recombinant antibodies are produced in vitro as an expression of a defined antibody sequence which assures equivalent bioactivity and specificity across time and lots. They provide a solution to concerns like cell-line drift, lot-to-lot variation, and specificity in complex biological systems.

Recombinant antibodies can be genetically manipulated to offer higher quality and better performing reagents. They are known for their versatility by being suitable for a wide range of applications and being utilized in large scale or long-term experiments. Recombinant antibodies are available in diverse formats such as conjugated and purified forms with multiple species backbones, isotypes, and sub-types.

Why choose recombinant antibodies?

We are addressing the challenges faced by researchers in proteomics, human health, and drug discovery by offering highly validated recombinant antibodies.

  • Specificity: Our antibodies undergo rigorous advanced verification through one or more different methods like relative expression, knockout analysis, and cell treatment. Currently, the portfolio houses thousands of advanced verified antibodies and we are in continuous pursuit to increase these numbers.
  • Exceptional performance and sensitivity: Recombinant antibodies are available in different engineered backbones, resulting in enhanced sensitivity and supporting wider application coverage, without compromising on specificity.
  • Versatility and scalability: We offer antibodies raised in multiple species, validated using a rigorous process to suit various research needs and a wide range of applications. Recombinant production methods allow for large scale lot manufacturing.
  • Reproducibility: Recombinant monoclonal antibodies exhibit exceptional lot-to-lot reproducibility because banked DNA does not exhibit a genetic drift—a phenomenon where hybridomas change expression patterns over time.

Antibody selection guide


Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibodies Recombinant Rabbit Polyclonal AntibodiesConventional Monoclonal AntibodyConventional Polyclonal AntibodySuperclonal Recombinant AntibodiesNanobodies


Primary antibodyPrimary antibodyPrimary antibodyPrimary antibodySecondary antibodySecondary antibody



Derived from rabbit monoclonal antibody-producing cell lines.

Derived from a mixture of recombinant rabbit antibodies.

Derived from fusing host animal spleen cells with myeloma cells to produce genetically homogeneous antibodies against a single epitope.

Derived from the inoculation of a suitable mammal, such as a mouse, rabbit, or goat.


Derived from a pool of recombinant secondary antibodies.

Retain the antigen binding region of the heavy chain domain of a conventional antibody, but do not have the other light variable chain domains.


These recombinant cloned antibodies are not susceptible to cell-line drift or lot-to-lot variation, allowing for peak specificity and performance.

Like conventional polyclonal antibodies, the recombinant polyclonal offers enhanced sensitivity for low abundance targets, while ensuring consistency in chain populations across lots, eliminating biological variability.

Offer specificity to a single epitope and ensure a stable, long-term supply.

Enhanced sensitivity for low abundance targets with multi-epitope coverage.

Provide the epitope-precision of monoclonal antibodies while achieving the multi-epitope coverage and sensitivity of polyclonal antibodies.

Have minimal cross-reactivity to other species IgG and can be co-incubated with primary antibodies to save time while multiplexing.




Variable, dependent on epitope availability

Variable, dependent on production and validation methods






Variable, dependent on epitope availability and validation methods

Variable, dependent on epitope distribution among various clones, production, and validation methods



Lot-to-lot consistency



Aberrant transcripts can be acquired from myeloma fusions

Variable, animal variability and purification process



Epitope variability



None, but can be acquired over time

Variable across lots




Developed by isolating and cloning the specific antibody heavy and light chain DNA sequences.

Comprised of a mixture of recombinant antibodies co-expressed from a library of heavy and light chains.

Hybridoma generation via immunization methods and expression via tissue culture or ascites production.

Immunization via a host animal (positive and/or negative selection) of antibodies from the serum.

Produce and characterize numerous individual recombinant antibodies. Then, carefully screen, select, and pool specific antibodies.

Produced via recombinant techniques in bacterial or alternative animal-free expression systems.

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Advanced Verification

Thermo Fisher Scientific is committed to adopting higher validation standards for the Invitrogen antibody portfolio. We have implemented additional specificity tests to help ensure the highest confidence levels in our products. You can identify the products that have already undergone this testing with the Advanced Verification badge, shown above. This badge can be found in antibody search results and at the top of product webpages. The data supporting the Advanced Verification status can be found in the product specific data galleries. To learn more about our testing standards, please visit Invitrogen Antibody Verification.

* The use or any variation of the word “validation” refers only to research use antibodies that were subject to functional testing to confirm that the antibody can be used with the research techniques indicated. It does not ensure that the product(s) was validated for clinical or diagnostic use.

For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.