Genotoxic substances induce damage in cells through interaction with the genetic material, including DNA sequence and structure. Several types of DNA damage can result, including single- and double-strand breaks, cross-links between DNA bases and proteins, and chemical additions to the DNA. Errors in the DNA replication process can also be exacerbated leading to mitotic arrest or perturbations in the cell cycle. Genotoxic effects such as alterations to the integrity and function of DNA are commonly screened in mammalian cells by looking for double-strand breaks, or following the progression of cell division.
The underlying mechanisms of genotoxicity mean that genetic damage is often seen in association with oxidative stress.
Cell cycle analysis
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