In collaboration with the European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC) and the European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), Invitrogen scientists developed a highly predictive bioaccumulation model using trout liver S9.  This model, representing a new frontier in bioaccumulation testing, specifically addresses the limitations of current methods in meeting requirements under REACh and other regulations.

Bioaccumulation/Biodegradation Assessment

Unique benefits of using our test approach include:

  • Trout liver S9 and hepatocytes contain Phase I and Phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes
  • Rapid and cost-effective measurements of fish metabolic biotransformation potential can be assessed by measuring the intrinsic clearance rate of the parent chemical
  • Reduction in the need for whole animal testing currently required using the OECD TG 305 fish BCF test
  • Validated assays with data on differences in male and female metabolism and time- and protein-concentration optimization
  • Controls (heat-treated S9 or hepatocytes) included to account for non-metabolism dependent turnover

We are currently in process of validation with funding from ECVAM and CEFIC.

Solutions Designed for You

We can help you design the testing program of your choice.  Our strong regulatory experience and relationships, coupled with our scientific expertise and innovative approaches, make us the premier partner for your safety assessment compliance needs.

  • For further information on how we can partner with you to meet your safety assessment needs, please contact us.

We've Done the Fishing for You!

Fish have been used in in vivo studies by researchers for decades to assess bioaccumulation, metabolism, and environmental risk.  More recently, in vitro studies have demonstrated that hepatocytes, microsomes, and hepatic S9 fractions are effective and efficient tools to predict the in vivo endpoint for biotransformation and bioconcentration factor (BCF) testing.

The benefits of Invitrogen rainbow trout hepatocytes, microsomes, and S9 liver fractions include:

  • Consistent with the 3Rs approach
  • Convenient, ready-to-use, pooled lots
  • High hepatocyte viabilities (≥90%)
  • Functionally tested for Phase I and Phase II enzyme activities

To place an order or to receive order information on our hepatic products and services:

contact us by phone: (USA) +1 919 237 4500
or visit us on the web at,

Product Concentration Quantity Cat No.
Trout Hepatocytes, Female >5 million viable cells/ml 1.0 ml TRCH-F
Trout Hepatocytes, Male >5 million viable cells/ml 1.0 ml TRCH-F
Trout Microsomes, Female 20 mg/ml 0.5 ml TRMC-PL-FM
Trout Microsomes, Male 20 mg/ml 0.5 ml TRMC-PL
Trout S9 Fractions, Female 20 mg/ml 1.0 ml TRS9-PL-FM
Trout S9 Fractions, Male 20 mg/ml 1.0 ml TRS9-PL
Trout S9 Fractions, Isogenic 20 mg/ml 1.0 ml TRS9-ISO-PL
*male offspring from the same female