Mutation, selection, reproduction—repeat this for millions of generations—every biologist is familiar with how evolution has resulted in the incredible diversity and adaptations found in the natural world. Directed evolution uses a similar strategy to create biomolecules for use in diverse fields spanning industrial production, medical science, and basic research. The crucial difference is that, with directed evolution, results can be achieved much more quickly, in many cases with just a few rounds of mutagenesis and selection.


Invitrogen GeneArt Directed Evolution services cover a variety of different approaches for creating genetic variants with a maximum of control and efficiency. Starting from a single–base pair exchange to full synthetic libraries, we offer custom solutions to create the genetic diversity and proteins with the characteristics you need.

  • No physical template required
  • Generate variants that cannot be created using conventional methods
  • Maximum variation where you want it, and maximized sequence integrity in unmutated regions
  • Helps improve the likelihood of obtaining useful variants
  • Helps significantly reduce screening efforts compared to conventional mutagenesis methods
  • Include next- generation sequencing quality control for your library (optional)

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Featured GeneArt Directed Evolution services

GeneArt Combinatorial Libraries

Completely synthetic process using TRIM technology (optional) for introducing random variation in multiple codons (up to 1012 variants) with complete customization of the amino acid composition.

GeneArt Mutagenesis Service

Rapid, economical site-directed mutagenesis of existing DNA templates using a PCR-based approach.

GeneArt Strings Libraries

Fast and economical service to synthesize pools of GeneArt Strings DNA Fragments from 200 to 2,000 bp, containing up to 3 blocks of up to 30 degenerate nucleotides, each with randomized distribution (full IUPAC code).

GeneArt Site-Saturation Mutagenesis

Systematic mutagenesis to substitute the wild type codon at specific positions with codons for up to all 19 non–wild type amino acids. Many options available to fit your precise needs.

GeneArt Controlled Randomization Service

Advanced technology for introducing unbiased random mutations at the frequency you request, in the regions of the gene you specify. Mutagenize the entire ORF, or confine variation to selected regions (up to 1011 variants).

Synthetic variant libraries help you find your protein faster

Conventional mutagenesis protocols rely on virtually random mutations. For example, with error-prone PCR, the position and nature of the mutations cannot be controlled. As a result, mutant libraries contain many silent mutations and ill-placed stop codons. Perhaps of greater concern, however, is that only a tiny fraction of all possible sequence variants can be generated, so finding the best possible variant is extremely unlikely.

DNA shuffling can be a powerful approach for creating diversity, but it is subject to drawbacks including the requirement for stretches of homologous sequences to serve as reasonably high-efficiency recombination sites, and the need for DNA as starting material. In addition, traditional DNA shuffling typically does not separate and recombine adjacent single-nucleotide polymorphisms—changes which have the potential to result in useful protein variants.

GeneArt Directed Evolution for protein engineering overcomes many of the limitations of conventional variant-library construction techniques. De novo gene synthesis enables construction of virtually any gene variation so that your library encodes maximum variability. Supported by the GeneArt GeneOptimizer algorithm for sequence design, synthetic libraries achieve thorough representation of desired variants with the specified distribution of nucleotides in areas targeted for partial degeneracy or full randomization. The GeneArt Gene Synthesis process simultaneously minimizes the introduction of unwanted mutants and erroneous changes to unmutated portions of your constructs. This approach dramatically reduces the number of variants—economizing screening time, reagents, and effort—while helping to increase your chance of success. Because library synthesis is largely automated, we can offer rapid production times so that you can get started quickly. Our rigorous quality control systems include sequencing (and optional next-generation sequencing), statistical sequence analysis, and real-time PCR diversity analysis (control procedures are tailored to individual product lines).

Tell us about your project for more information and to receive information on pricing and production time.



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