Pierce Coomassie Plus, Bradford Reagent, catalog number 23236

Dye-based protein detection

Bradford assays are coomassie dye-binding assays for fast and simple protein quantification. The assay is performed at room temperature and no special equipment is required. Standard and unknown samples are added to preformulated Coomassie blue G-250 assay reagent and the resultant blue color is measured at 595 nm following a short room temperature incubation. Bradford protein assays are compatible with most salts, solvents, buffers, thiols, reducing substances, and metal chelating agents encountered in protein samples.

Protein Assay Selection Guide  Protein Assay Technical Handbook

Use the table and information below to select the Bradford assay (Bradford reagent) for your applications.

 
  Coomassie Plus (Bradford) Protein Assay Detergent Compatible Bradford Assay Coomassie (Bradford) Protein Assay
Features Ready-to-use, reducing agent–compatible Bradford assay reagent that provides increased linearity of response and only half the protein-to-protein variation of other commercial Bradford assay formulations Ready-to-use modification of the Bradford Assay with additional additives to make it compatible with 1% or higher of commonly used detergents, including Triton X-100 and NP-40 detergents Ready-to-use formulation of the popular assay reagent originally described by Bradford in 1976
Assay range (sample volume) 100 -1,500 µg/mL (35 µL)
Or
1-25 µg/mL (150 µL)
100 -1,500 µg/mL (10 µL)
or
2-25 µg/mL (150 µL)
100-1,500 µg/mL (20 µL)
or
1-25 µg/mL (150 µL)
Compatible reagents Buffer salts, metal ions, reducing agents, chelators Detergents, buffer salts, metal ions, reducing agents, chelators Buffer salts, metal ions, reducing agents, chelators
Incompatibilities Detergents >5% detergent solutions Detergents
Incubation time 10 10 10
Product size 950 mL/kit 450 mL/kit 950 mL/kit
Cat. No. 23236 23246 23200

Bradford assay principles

Use of Coomassie G-250 Dye in a colorimetric reagent for the detection and quantitation of total protein was first described by Dr. Marion Bradford in 1976. Pierce Coomassie Bradford Protein Assays are modifications of the reagent first reported by Dr. Bradford.

Chemistry of Bradford, Coomassie-based protein assays

In an acidic environment, proteins bind to coomassie dye. This results in a spectral shift from the reddish brown form of the dye (absorbance maximum at 465 nm) to the blue form (absorbance maximum at 610 nm). The difference between the two dye forms is greatest at 595 nm, making it the optimal wavelength to measure the blue color from the Coomassie dye–protein complex. If desired, the blue color can be measured at any wavelength between 575 nm and 615 nm. At the two extremes (575 nm and 615 nm), there is an approximate 10% decrease in the measured amount of color (absorbance) compared to that obtained at 595 nm. Development of color in Coomassie dye–based protein assays has been associated with the presence of certain basic amino acids—primarily arginine, lysine, and histidine—in the protein. Van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions also influence dye–protein binding. The number of Coomassie dye molecules bound to each protein is approximately proportional to the number of positive charges found on the protein. Free amino acids, peptides, and low molecular weight proteins do not produce color with Coomassie dye reagents. In general, the mass of a peptide or protein should be at least 3,000 Da for quantification with this reagent. In some applications, this can be an advantage.

Reaction schematic for Bradford protein assay

Figure 1. Reaction schematic for the Coomassie dye–based Bradford protein assays: Pierce Coomassie (Bradford) protein assay, the Pierce Coomassie Plus (Bradford) assay, and Pierce Detergent Compatible Bradford assay.

The main disadvantage of Coomassie based protein assays is their incompatibility with surfactants at concentrations routinely used to solubilize membrane proteins. In general, the presence of a surfactant in the sample, even at low concentrations, causes precipitation of the reagent. This limitation can be overcome by using Detergent Compatible Bradford Assay. In addition, the Coomassie dye reagent is highly acidic, so proteins with poor acid-solubility cannot be assayed with this reagent. Finally, Coomassie reagents result in about twice as much protein-to-protein variation as copper chelation-based assay reagents.

Product highlights

Detergent Compatible Bradford Assay

Pierce Detergent Compatible Bradford Assay Kit is a quick and ready-to-use modification of the well-known Bradford Coomassie dye-binding, colorimetric method for total protein quantitation. This formulation is compatible with up to 1% of commonly used detergents. Comparing Pierce Detergent Compatible Bradford Assay to the Bio-Rad DC Protein Assay, better sensitivity is seen with the Pierce Detergent Compatible Bradford Assay using common detergents. The range of the standard curve for the Pierce Detergent Compatible Bradford assay is 4 times broader than the range for the Bio-Rad DC assay.

Comparison between Bio-Rad DC assay vs Pierce Detergent Compatible Bradford assay

Figure 2. Bradford protein assay vs. the Bio-Rad DC protein assay. Each assay was performed in a microplate using BSA standards spiked with detergent or water (control), and followed the manufacturers’ instructions.

Features Pierce Detergent Compatible Bradford Assay Kit Bio-Tad DC Protein Assay Kit
Assay measurement (absorbance maximum) 595 nm 750 nm
Detergent-free standards Yes No
Test tube assay sample volume 50 μL 100 μL
Microplate assay sample volume 10 μL 5 μL
Assay working range 100-1,500 μg/mL 200-1,500 μg/mL
Absorbance range (sensitivity) High* Low
Number of reagents in kit 1 reagent 3 reagents
Setup time 10 min 30 min
Incubation time 10 min 15 min
Total 20 min 45 min

Table 1. Comparing Pierce Detergent Compatible Bradford Assay Kit with Bio-Rad DC Protein Assay Kit.

  Pierce 660 nm protein assay, catalog number 22662
  Pierce 660 nm Protein Assay Kit
Assay range: microplate (sample volume) 25 to 2,000 µg/mL (65 µL)
or
50 to 2,000 µg/mL (10 µL)
Incubation time and temperature 5
Total assay time 75
Absorbance 660 nm
Compatible reagents Reducing agents, chelating agents, detergents
Incompatible reagents High levels of detergents or SDS requires addition of Ionic detergent compatibility reagent
Uniformity Less protein–protein variation than the Coomassie (Bradford) assay
Product size 450 mL/kit
Cat. No. 22662

Pierce 660 nm Assay principles

Chemistry of Pierce 660 nm Assay

The Pierce 660nm Protein Assay is based on the binding of a unique dye-metal complex to protein in acidic conditions that causes a shift in the dye's absorption maximum, which is measured at 660 nm. The dye-metal complex is reddish-brown and changes to green upon protein binding. The color change is produced by deprotonation of the dye at low pH facilitated by interactions with positively charged amino acid groups in proteins. Therefore, the dye interacts mainly with basic residues in proteins, such as histidine, arginine and lysine and to a lesser extent tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine.

The color produced in the assay is stable and increases in proportion to a broad range of increasing protein concentrations, even in the presence of detergents and reducing agents that would be incompatible with Bradford and BCA Protein Assays. The optional IDCR may be added to the assay reagent to increase compatibility with high amounts of ionic detergents, allowing samples containing Laemmli SDS sample buffer with bromophenol blue to be measured. The IDCR completely dissolves by thorough mixing and does not have any effect on the assay.

Absorption maximum of Pierce 660 nm Protein Assay reagent

Figure 3. Absorption maximum of the 660 nm Assay Reagent-metal complex shifts proportionally upon binding to BSA. Protein in the presence of the reagent-metal complex produces a significant absorbance shift at a wavelength of 660 nm.

Protein quantification with Pierce 660 nm Protein Assay

The Pierce 660 nm Assay is more linear than coomassie-based Bradford assays and compatible with higher concentrations of most detergents, reducing agents and other commonly used reagents. The accessory Ionic Detergent Compatibility Reagent (IDCR) provides for even broader detergent compatibility, making this one of the only protein assays that is suitable for samples containing Laemmli SDS sample buffer with bromophenol blue. Although the Pierce 660 nm Protein Assay produces a higher level of protein-to-protein variation (37%) than other assays, such as the BCA Protein Assay, the simpler single-reagent format and broader substance compatibility make the Pierce 660 nm Assay more convenient for many routine applications. The Pierce 660nm Protein Assay can be performed in either a test tube or microplate format.

Pierce 660 nm Protein assay standard curve and Bio-Rad Bradford standard curve

Figure 4. Performance comparison and typical color response

A: Performance comparison of the Bio-Rad Bradford Protein Assay versus the Thermo Scientific Pierce 660nm Protein Assay. Assays were performed according the standard test-tube procedure using 100µL of BSA. The Pierce 660nm Protein Assay has a greater linear range (25 to 2000µg) compared with the Bradford Assay (125 to 1000µg). Absorbances were measured at the appropriate wavelengths for each assay (660nm and 595nm, respectively). Typical color response curve using the test tube procedure.

B: Typical color response curved using the test tube procedure. The linear detection ranges are 25 to 2000µg/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 50 to 2000µg/mL for bovine gamma globulin (BGG). Due to the inherent protein to protein variability of all protein assays (37% for the 660nm Protein Assay), this demonstrates that appropriate standards should be used for the type of unknown samples being measured.

Use the table and information below to select the Bradford assay (Bradford reagent) for your applications.

 
  Coomassie Plus (Bradford) Protein Assay Detergent Compatible Bradford Assay Coomassie (Bradford) Protein Assay
Features Ready-to-use, reducing agent–compatible Bradford assay reagent that provides increased linearity of response and only half the protein-to-protein variation of other commercial Bradford assay formulations Ready-to-use modification of the Bradford Assay with additional additives to make it compatible with 1% or higher of commonly used detergents, including Triton X-100 and NP-40 detergents Ready-to-use formulation of the popular assay reagent originally described by Bradford in 1976
Assay range (sample volume) 100 -1,500 µg/mL (35 µL)
Or
1-25 µg/mL (150 µL)
100 -1,500 µg/mL (10 µL)
or
2-25 µg/mL (150 µL)
100-1,500 µg/mL (20 µL)
or
1-25 µg/mL (150 µL)
Compatible reagents Buffer salts, metal ions, reducing agents, chelators Detergents, buffer salts, metal ions, reducing agents, chelators Buffer salts, metal ions, reducing agents, chelators
Incompatibilities Detergents >5% detergent solutions Detergents
Incubation time 10 10 10
Product size 950 mL/kit 450 mL/kit 950 mL/kit
Cat. No. 23236 23246 23200

Bradford assay principles

Use of Coomassie G-250 Dye in a colorimetric reagent for the detection and quantitation of total protein was first described by Dr. Marion Bradford in 1976. Pierce Coomassie Bradford Protein Assays are modifications of the reagent first reported by Dr. Bradford.

Chemistry of Bradford, Coomassie-based protein assays

In an acidic environment, proteins bind to coomassie dye. This results in a spectral shift from the reddish brown form of the dye (absorbance maximum at 465 nm) to the blue form (absorbance maximum at 610 nm). The difference between the two dye forms is greatest at 595 nm, making it the optimal wavelength to measure the blue color from the Coomassie dye–protein complex. If desired, the blue color can be measured at any wavelength between 575 nm and 615 nm. At the two extremes (575 nm and 615 nm), there is an approximate 10% decrease in the measured amount of color (absorbance) compared to that obtained at 595 nm. Development of color in Coomassie dye–based protein assays has been associated with the presence of certain basic amino acids—primarily arginine, lysine, and histidine—in the protein. Van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions also influence dye–protein binding. The number of Coomassie dye molecules bound to each protein is approximately proportional to the number of positive charges found on the protein. Free amino acids, peptides, and low molecular weight proteins do not produce color with Coomassie dye reagents. In general, the mass of a peptide or protein should be at least 3,000 Da for quantification with this reagent. In some applications, this can be an advantage.

Reaction schematic for Bradford protein assay

Figure 1. Reaction schematic for the Coomassie dye–based Bradford protein assays: Pierce Coomassie (Bradford) protein assay, the Pierce Coomassie Plus (Bradford) assay, and Pierce Detergent Compatible Bradford assay.

The main disadvantage of Coomassie based protein assays is their incompatibility with surfactants at concentrations routinely used to solubilize membrane proteins. In general, the presence of a surfactant in the sample, even at low concentrations, causes precipitation of the reagent. This limitation can be overcome by using Detergent Compatible Bradford Assay. In addition, the Coomassie dye reagent is highly acidic, so proteins with poor acid-solubility cannot be assayed with this reagent. Finally, Coomassie reagents result in about twice as much protein-to-protein variation as copper chelation-based assay reagents.

Product highlights

Detergent Compatible Bradford Assay

Pierce Detergent Compatible Bradford Assay Kit is a quick and ready-to-use modification of the well-known Bradford Coomassie dye-binding, colorimetric method for total protein quantitation. This formulation is compatible with up to 1% of commonly used detergents. Comparing Pierce Detergent Compatible Bradford Assay to the Bio-Rad DC Protein Assay, better sensitivity is seen with the Pierce Detergent Compatible Bradford Assay using common detergents. The range of the standard curve for the Pierce Detergent Compatible Bradford assay is 4 times broader than the range for the Bio-Rad DC assay.

Comparison between Bio-Rad DC assay vs Pierce Detergent Compatible Bradford assay

Figure 2. Bradford protein assay vs. the Bio-Rad DC protein assay. Each assay was performed in a microplate using BSA standards spiked with detergent or water (control), and followed the manufacturers’ instructions.

Features Pierce Detergent Compatible Bradford Assay Kit Bio-Tad DC Protein Assay Kit
Assay measurement (absorbance maximum) 595 nm 750 nm
Detergent-free standards Yes No
Test tube assay sample volume 50 μL 100 μL
Microplate assay sample volume 10 μL 5 μL
Assay working range 100-1,500 μg/mL 200-1,500 μg/mL
Absorbance range (sensitivity) High* Low
Number of reagents in kit 1 reagent 3 reagents
Setup time 10 min 30 min
Incubation time 10 min 15 min
Total 20 min 45 min

Table 1. Comparing Pierce Detergent Compatible Bradford Assay Kit with Bio-Rad DC Protein Assay Kit.

  Pierce 660 nm protein assay, catalog number 22662
  Pierce 660 nm Protein Assay Kit
Assay range: microplate (sample volume) 25 to 2,000 µg/mL (65 µL)
or
50 to 2,000 µg/mL (10 µL)
Incubation time and temperature 5
Total assay time 75
Absorbance 660 nm
Compatible reagents Reducing agents, chelating agents, detergents
Incompatible reagents High levels of detergents or SDS requires addition of Ionic detergent compatibility reagent
Uniformity Less protein–protein variation than the Coomassie (Bradford) assay
Product size 450 mL/kit
Cat. No. 22662

Pierce 660 nm Assay principles

Chemistry of Pierce 660 nm Assay

The Pierce 660nm Protein Assay is based on the binding of a unique dye-metal complex to protein in acidic conditions that causes a shift in the dye's absorption maximum, which is measured at 660 nm. The dye-metal complex is reddish-brown and changes to green upon protein binding. The color change is produced by deprotonation of the dye at low pH facilitated by interactions with positively charged amino acid groups in proteins. Therefore, the dye interacts mainly with basic residues in proteins, such as histidine, arginine and lysine and to a lesser extent tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine.

The color produced in the assay is stable and increases in proportion to a broad range of increasing protein concentrations, even in the presence of detergents and reducing agents that would be incompatible with Bradford and BCA Protein Assays. The optional IDCR may be added to the assay reagent to increase compatibility with high amounts of ionic detergents, allowing samples containing Laemmli SDS sample buffer with bromophenol blue to be measured. The IDCR completely dissolves by thorough mixing and does not have any effect on the assay.

Absorption maximum of Pierce 660 nm Protein Assay reagent

Figure 3. Absorption maximum of the 660 nm Assay Reagent-metal complex shifts proportionally upon binding to BSA. Protein in the presence of the reagent-metal complex produces a significant absorbance shift at a wavelength of 660 nm.

Protein quantification with Pierce 660 nm Protein Assay

The Pierce 660 nm Assay is more linear than coomassie-based Bradford assays and compatible with higher concentrations of most detergents, reducing agents and other commonly used reagents. The accessory Ionic Detergent Compatibility Reagent (IDCR) provides for even broader detergent compatibility, making this one of the only protein assays that is suitable for samples containing Laemmli SDS sample buffer with bromophenol blue. Although the Pierce 660 nm Protein Assay produces a higher level of protein-to-protein variation (37%) than other assays, such as the BCA Protein Assay, the simpler single-reagent format and broader substance compatibility make the Pierce 660 nm Assay more convenient for many routine applications. The Pierce 660nm Protein Assay can be performed in either a test tube or microplate format.

Pierce 660 nm Protein assay standard curve and Bio-Rad Bradford standard curve

Figure 4. Performance comparison and typical color response

A: Performance comparison of the Bio-Rad Bradford Protein Assay versus the Thermo Scientific Pierce 660nm Protein Assay. Assays were performed according the standard test-tube procedure using 100µL of BSA. The Pierce 660nm Protein Assay has a greater linear range (25 to 2000µg) compared with the Bradford Assay (125 to 1000µg). Absorbances were measured at the appropriate wavelengths for each assay (660nm and 595nm, respectively). Typical color response curve using the test tube procedure.

B: Typical color response curved using the test tube procedure. The linear detection ranges are 25 to 2000µg/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 50 to 2000µg/mL for bovine gamma globulin (BGG). Due to the inherent protein to protein variability of all protein assays (37% for the 660nm Protein Assay), this demonstrates that appropriate standards should be used for the type of unknown samples being measured.