Protein Modification and Crosslinking Information

Learn about methods and technologies for protein labeling, modification, and crosslinking. Understand the chemical functional groups and reaction chemistries required to crosslink and conjugate proteins to one another; to label proteins with biotin, PEG, or fluorescent dyes; or to reduce, cleave, and fragment proteins for use in assays.

  • Crosslinking
  • Crosslinker chemistry
  • Conjugation reagents 
  • Bioconjugates
  • Covalent attachment
  • Functional groups
  • Reactive moieties
  • Amino acids
  • Amines
  • Sulfhydryls
  • Carboxyls
  • NHS esters
  • Maleimides
  • EDC (EDAC)
  • Molecular probes 
  • Fluorescent dyes
  • Biotinylation
  • PEGylation
  • Technical handbooks
  • Protein methods articles
  • Product application notes
  • Support center resources
  • Protocols
  • Product selection guides

Protein modification and crosslinking features

Methods article

Biological research often requires the use of molecular labels that are covalently attached to a protein of interest to facilitate detection or purification of the labeled protein and/or its binding partners. Labeling strategies result in the covalent attachment of different molecules, including biotin, reporter enzymes, and fluorophores.

Methods article

Crosslinking is the process of chemically joining two or more molecules by a covalent bond. Modification involves attaching or cleaving chemical groups to alter the solubility or other properties of the original molecule.


Protein modification and crosslinking learning resources

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TypeTitle
HandbookBioconjugation Handbook
HandbookProtein Research Handbook (2016)
HandbookThermo Scientific Crosslinking Technical Guide (2012)
HandbookThe Molecular Probes Handbook (2010)
Methods articleThe Pierce Protein Methods Library
Methods articleAn Overview of Protein Labeling
Methods articleBiotinylation
Methods articleMetabolic Labeling and Chemoselective Ligation
Methods articleAn Overview of Crosslinking and Protein Modification
Methods articleChemistry of Crosslinking
Methods articleCrosslinking Applications
Methods articlePolyethylene Glycol (PEG) and Pegylation of Proteins
Methods articleCarbodiimide Crosslinker Chemistry
Methods articleAmine-Reactive Crosslinker Chemistry
Methods articleSulfhydryl-Reactive Crosslinker Chemistry
Methods articleCarbonyl-Reactive Crosslinker Chemistry
Methods articlePhotoreactive Crosslinker Chemistry
Methods articleStaudinger Ligation Reaction Chemistry
Methods articleCrosslinking Protein Interaction Analysis
Methods articleLabel Transfer Protein Interaction Analysis
Methods articleMethods for Labeling Nucleic Acids
Methods articlePeptide Design
Methods articlePeptide Synthesis
Methods articleAmino Acid Physical Properties
Selection guideBiotinylation Reagent Selection Tool
Selection guideFluorescent Labeling (Selection Guide)
Selection guideStaudinger Reagent Selection Guide
Selection guideCrosslinking Reagent Crosslinker Selection Guide
Selection guideIn Vivo Crosslinking Selection Guide
Application noteProduct Application Notes
Application noteCarrier protein activation and conjugation data for immunogen preparation. Experiments with KLH variants and other immunogens to validate solubility, maleimide activation consistency, peptide conjugation efficiency and immunogenicity.
Application noteImproved immobilization and conjugation of glycoproteins. Efficient aldehyde-hydrazide covalent coupling using a catalyst and an optimized buffer.