Real-world materials applications often take place under variable environmental conditions, including high temperatures. The behavior of your heated material as it recrystallizes, melts, and deforms can inform critical macro- and microscopic observations, such as how a manufactured part might respond to stress or how feed materials behave during production. As a sample’s response to heat is a dynamic process, it must be paired with dynamic observation for accurate insight. Modern heating stages in electron microscopes allow for in situ experiments for high-resolution observation of heated materials. These demanding experiments are capable of linking sample morphology, environment, and thermodynamics, and can help you control the corresponding behavior of the bulk material.

There are many considerations when operating electron microscopes at elevated temperatures, such as the desired temperature range, sample size, and chemical environment. The following table shows what is possible with Thermo Scientific temperature stages.

Style Sheet for Products Table Specifications

Name

Application

Temperature

Max. Sample Size

Environment

High vacuum heating stage

General-purpose heating, high resolution imaging, in-column detection, fast processes, electron-backscatter diffraction (EBSD)

Up to 1100°C

(EBSD up to 900°C)

10 mm

High vacuum

Environmental SEM (ESEM) stage

Heating in gaseous environment: oxidation or other chemical reactions

Up to 1000°C or 1400°C, depending on the model

5 mm

ESEM

µHeater

Powder heating, chunk lift-out studies (DualBeam), STEM imaging, high-temperature EBSD and EDS, ramp rate of 10,000°C/s

Up to 1200°C

50 µm

Any

Cooling stage, WetSTEM

Precise control over humidity, wetting studies, modest heating

-20°C to +60°C

3 mm

ESEM

Gold on a silicon substrate heated with a SEM hot stage.
Gold on a silicon substrate at approximately 1080°C. The High Vacuum Heating Stage allows all in-lens detectors and imaging modes to be used to image the sample with excellent resolution and contrast.

Mixture of magnetite and hematite nanoparticles heated at 1030 °C.
Backscattered electron image (left) and EDS maps of iron and oxygen (right) acquired simultaneously.

Texture development on implant material. As the temperature increases from 700 °C to 1300 °C
we can observe a completely different surface structure. Pressure: 120 Pa.

Two-phase Co-Sb alloy during heating to 700°C on the High Vacuum Heating Stage. The antimony-rich
phase sublimated during heating, causing exposure of the second phase.

Mixture of magnetite and hematite nanoparticles heated at 1030 °C.
Backscattered electron image (left) and EDS maps of iron and oxygen (right) acquired simultaneously.

Texture development on implant material. As the temperature increases from 700 °C to 1300 °C
we can observe a completely different surface structure. Pressure: 120 Pa.

Two-phase Co-Sb alloy during heating to 700°C on the High Vacuum Heating Stage. The antimony-rich
phase sublimated during heating, causing exposure of the second phase.

Applications

Fundamental Materials Research_R&D_Thumb_274x180_144DPI

Fundamental Materials Research

Novel materials are investigated at increasingly smaller scales for maximum control of their physical and chemical properties. Electron microscopy provides researchers with key insight into a wide variety of material characteristics at the micro- to nano-scale.

 


Samples


Battery Research

Battery development is enabled by multi-scale analysis with microCT, SEM and TEM, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, and digital 3D visualization and analysis. Learn how this approach provides the structural and chemical information needed to build better batteries.

Learn more ›


Metals Research

Effective production of metals requires precise control of inclusions and precipitates. Our automated tools can perform a variety of tasks critical for metal analysis including; nanoparticle counting, EDS chemical analysis and TEM sample preparation.

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Polymers Research

Polymer microstructure dictates the material’s bulk characteristics and performance. Electron microscopy enables comprehensive microscale analysis of polymer morphology and composition for R&D and quality control applications.

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Nanoparticles

Materials have fundamentally different properties at the nanoscale than at the macroscale. To study them, S/TEM instrumentation can be combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to obtain nanometer, or even sub-nanometer, resolution data.

Learn more ›


Forensics

Micro-traces of crime scene evidence can be analyzed and compared using electron microscopy as part of a forensic investigation. Compatible samples include glass and paint fragments, tool marks, drugs, explosives, and GSR (gunshot residue).

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Catalysis Research

Catalysts are critical for a majority of modern industrial processes. Their efficiency depends on the microscopic composition and morphology of the catalytic particles; EM with EDS is ideally suited for studying these properties.

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Automotive Materials Testing

Every component in a modern vehicle is designed for safety, efficiency, and performance. Detailed characterization of automotive materials with electron microscopy and spectroscopy informs critical process decisions, product improvements, and new materials.

Learn more ›


Fibers and Filters

The diameter, morphology and density of synthetic fibers are key parameters that determine the lifetime and functionality of a filter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is the ideal technique for quickly and easily investigating these features.

Learn more ›

Products

Style Sheet for Media Gallery Tabs

Helios 5 DualBeam

  • Fully automated, high-quality, ultra-thin TEM sample preparation
  • High throughput, high resolution subsurface and 3D characterization
  • Rapid nanoprototyping capabilities

Helios 5 PFIB DualBeam

  • Gallium-free STEM and TEM sample preparation
  • Multi-modal subsurface and 3D information
  • Next-generation 2.5 μA xenon plasma FIB column

Axia ChemiSEM

  • Live quantitative elemental mapping
  • High fidelity scanning electron microscopy imaging
  • Flexible and easy to use, even for novice users
  • Easy maintenance

Apreo 2 SEM

  • High-performance SEM for all-round nanometer or sub-nanometer resolution
  • In-column T1 backscatter detector for sensitive, TV-rate materials contrast
  • Excellent performance at long working distance (10 mm)

Prisma E SEM

  • Entry-level SEM with excellent image quality
  • Easy and quick sample loading and navigation for multiple samples
  • Compatible with a wide range of materials thanks to dedicated vacuum modes

Verios 5 XHR SEM

  • Monochromated SEM for sub-nanometer resolution over the full 1 keV to 30 keV energy range
  • Easy access to beam landing energies as low as 20 eV
  • Excellent stability with piezo stage as standard

Quattro ESEM

  • Ultra-versatile high-resolution FEG SEM with unique environmental capability (ESEM)
  • Observe all information from all samples with simultaneous SE and BSE imaging in every mode of operation

Phenom ProX Desktop SEM

  • High performance desktop SEM with integrated EDS detector
  • Resolution <8 nm (SE) and <10 nm (BSE); magnification up to 150,000x
  • Optional SE detector
 
 

Phenom Pro Desktop SEM

  • High performance desktop SEM
  • Resolution <8 nm (SE) and <10 nm (BSE); magnification up to 150,000x
  • Optional SE detector

Phenom Pure SEM

  • Imaging module
  • 19” monitor
  • Diaphragm vacuum pump
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