Californium • Actinide Rare Earth
Date of discovery: 1950
Name origin: California
Discoverer: G.T. Seaborg
Obtained from: man-made
Melting point: 900 K
Boiling point: unknown
Molar volume: 16.50 × 10-6 m3/mol
Shell structure: 2,8,18,32,28,8,2
Electron configuration: [Rn]5f107s2
Oxidation state: +3
Crystal structure: unknown
Although californium does not occur naturally on Earth, its electromagnetic emissions are regularly observed in the spectra of supernovae. Difficult to produce on a large scale, californium has been used in radiography of aircraft materials to detect metal fatigue. It has also been used in the treatment of certain cervical and brain cancers where other radiation therapy is ineffective. This man-made element is named after the state of California and the University of California, Berkeley, where it was discovered. Recently, it was announced that californium had been bombarded with calcium ions to produce oganesson (atomic number 118).
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