Bromine • Halogen
Primary XPS region: Br3d
Overlapping regions: Na2s
Binding energies of common chemical states:
|Chemical state||Binding energy Br3d5/2|
Interpretation of XPS spectra
- Br3d peak has overlapping spin-orbit components (Δ=1.04eV, intensity ratio=0.671).
- Not observed as element.
- Br-containing polymers may degrade with prolonged exposure to X-ray beam.
About this element
Date of discovery: 1826
Name origin: Greek brômos
Discoverer: Antoine J. Balard
Obtained from: sea water
Melting point: -7.2 K
Boiling point: 58.78 K
Molar volume: 19.78 × 10-6 m3/mol
Shell structure: 2,8,18,7
Electron configuration: [Ar]3d104s24p5
Oxidation state: ±1,5
Crystal structure: orthorhombic
Stemming from the Greek word for stench, bromine is known for its strong, disagreeable odor, similar to that of chlorine. Corrosive to human tissue and an irritant to the eyes and throat, bromine is highly active. It is reputed to be a contributor to the depletion of the ozone in Earth’s atmosphere. Bromine bonds easily with other elements and has strong bleaching action. Bromine has been used in many applications including the manufacturing of fumigants, water purification compounds, dyes, and medicines. It is used to make brominated vegetable oil, which is found in many citrus-flavored soft drinks.
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